Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy
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  Complete listing of publications, with abstracts
  Publications listed alphabetically by author
  Publications listed alphabetically by title


Program publications are listed here in reverse chronological order and with an abstract. There are also both an index by title and an index by author.

[2011] [2010] [2009] [2008] [2007] [2006] [2005] [2004] [2003] [2002]
[2001] [2000] [1999] [1998] [1997] [1996] [1995] [1994] [1993] [1992]
[1991] [1990] [1989] [1988] [1987] [1986] [1985] [1984] [1983] [1982]
[1981] [1980] [1979] [1978] [1977] [1976] [1975] [1974] [1973]

2011 [go to top]

LeGates, John C. B.
Growing Up With the Information Age
[77 pages; April 2011/Incidental Paper]
John LeGates started his career in 1965, just as remote computing and computer networking began. He was the first person to put computers in schools and then in hospitals. He set up the first academic computer-resource-sharing network, and was on the original design team of the ARPANET (now the Internet). He and Tony Oettinger founded the Program on Information Resources Policy at Harvard, which has worked as an insider with most of the major players forming "the information age". This is his account of those events and their times. It provides as well a partial history of the Harvard Program from 1973 to 1997 ISBN 0-9798243-3-8 I-11-3

Barth, Gustave
Regulation of Intra-EU Roaming: A Summary of the 2000-2010 Decade
[22 pages; April 2011/Incidental Paper]
In reaction to exorbitant prices European travellers were most often charged when using their mobile phone abroad within the EU and in reaction to the stubborness of the industry, the European Commission initiated regulatory action after years of debate and struggle. Thus in 2007 EU-wide legislation was passed severely capping subject charges. There is though little indication by year-end 2010 of an important increase in overall roaming traffic as one would normally have expected to result from price decreases averaging about 70%. ISBN 0-9798243-2-X I-11-2

Longstaff, P.H. and Joseph Steinhardt
Listening to Uncertainty in the Music Business: Fat Tails and Resilience
[44 pages; January 2011/Incidental Paper]
The music industry has things to teach any other industry enduring a time of high uncertainty. Understanding the music business is now important to computer and telecommunication companies in particular, because recorded music is increasingly a large part of their business. This paper builds on an earlier PIRP Research Report that looked at the resilience of the movie business. It describes new ideas about the resilience in many systems and tests these ideas by looking at music sales data and interviewing executives and other experts in the music industry. ISBN 0-9798243-1-1 I-11-1

2008 [go to top]

Kalba, Kas
The Global Adoption and Diffusion of Mobile Phones
[112 pages; December 2008/Research Report]
This report assesses the drivers of mobile phone diffusion and adoption across the world. It addresses demand- and supply-side factors and provides an outlook on the diffusion process going forward, as mobile networks may accommodate 2 or 3 billion more users in addition to today’s 3-4 billion subscribers and users. While offering a general analysis, the report attempts to explain why mobile penetration has been higher in Western Europe than in the United States, in China than in India, and in Eastern Europe than in Latin America. Inputs to the report have included two cross-country databases (compiled by Merrill Lynch and ITU [International Telecommunications Union]), the author’s field studies of mobile adoption in more than twenty countries, and the comments of reviewers of earlier drafts. ISBN 0-9798243-0-3 P-08-1

Borg, Lindsey
Communicating With Intent: The Department of Defense and Strategic Communication
[76 pages; February 2008/Incidental Paper] ISBN 1-879716-99-2 I-08-1

2007 [go to top]

Lavey, Warren G.
Telecom Globalization and Deregulation Encounter U.S. National Security and Labor Concerns
[62 pages; June 2007/Research Report] ISBN 1-879716-80-1 P-07-2

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 2007.
[May 2007/Seminar] ISBN 1-879716-98-4 I-07-1

Baker, James A.: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Boykin, William G.: Defense Intelligence and Transformation
Sulick, Michael J.: Human Intelligence
Williams, Darryl R.: National Security in the Twenty-First Century: An "All Elements" Approach

Cushman, John H.
Planning and Early Execution of the War in Iraq: An Assessment of Military Participation
[31 pages; January 2007/Research Report]
See also: President Bush Deserved Better from USNI Proceedings, Nov. 2003
ISBN 1-879716-97-6 P-07-1

2006 [go to top]

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 2006
[August 2006/Seminar] ISBN 1-879716-96-8 I-06-1

Dempsey, Joan A.: The Limitations of Recent Intelligence Reforms
Lederman, Gordon: Restructuring the U.S. Intelligence Community
Murrett, Robert B.: Issues Confronting Military Intelligence
Wackler, Ted M.: Government Advisory Boards: Improving the Business of Government? Lessons from the Trenches
Williams, Darryl R.: Combating Global Terrorism: Bringing All Elements of National Power to Bear

2005 [go to top]

Longstaff, Pat
Security, Resilience, and Communication in Unpredictable Environments Such as Terrorism, Natural Disasters and Complex Technology
[113 pages; November 2005/Research Report]
Anyone who manages the security of a large organization or implements security policies for a government knows that the number of ‘surprises’ they must deal with is growing all the time. This is because many of the systems we deal with in the 21st century (human and technical) have grown more connected and complex, making them less predictable. This paper explores the many ways in which people deal with the resulting uncertainty. It focuses on the concepts of resistance (keeping dangerous surprises away) and resilience (the ability to bounce back from ugly surprises). It analyzes successful resilience strategies from many systems as well as what makes a resilience strategy fail. One of the major assets of any resilient system is a trusted source of information. One of the major internal threats to resilience is ‘The Blame Game’. The paper applies these ideas to two specific problems/opportunities: the role of the communications industries in times of uncertainty and surprise, and the application of resilience concepts to modern warfare and intelligence gathering. The final section sets out some first steps for managing security in unpredictable environments. ISBN 1-879716-95-X P-05-3

Bansemer, John D.
Intelligence Reform: A Question of Balance
[140 pages; August 2005/Research Report]
The changes in the intelligence community (IC) that were stimulated by the 9/11 Commission Report represent the latest in a series of reform efforts over more than fifty years, and will probably not be the last. This study explores three topics relevant to IC reform: (1) the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act and its applicability to the IC, (2) the common findings and recommendations of past attempts to reform the IC, and (3) the competing tensions in the IC that influence the pace and character of actual reform. The IC must always balance centralization against decentralization, the ability to "connect the dots" against failure to consider alternative analysis, information sharing against information protection, and the intelligence needs of national policymakers against those of individual departments. The study examines these issues in the context of the 9/11 Report and the subsequent actions taken by the executive and legislative branches. ISBN 1-879716-94-1 P-05-2

DiGennaro, Joann P.
Science Literacy: Essential for Responsible Decision-Making
[63 pages; January 2005/Research Report]
In an increasingly complex society, public decision-making often affects and is affected by advancements in science and technology. At the same time, Americans' knowledge of science, math and scientific principles is seriously lacking. This paper explores the implications of this knowledge deficit on the making of public policy. Noting how individuals and groups process information and form beliefs and opinions, the paper observes how political decision-makers are swayed by uninformed or misinformed public opinion to make decisions at odds with scientific facts. Looking at several instances where the interface of policy-making and the lack of scientific knowledge, it highlights the issues which arise from making decisions based on beliefs or fears not rationally based on science. This tendency to make decisions contrary to scientific evidence indicates a need for more science education, and the author suggests that this tendency may be ameliorated by certain improvements in science education. ISBN 1-879716-92-5 P-05-1

2004 [go to top]

Berresford, John W.
How Government Can Bring New Communications to All Americans: Six Lessons from History
[59 pages; October 2004/Research Report]
This paper tells the story of how four new technologies spread to all Americans – the telephone, radio, television, and new technologies made available by the Bell Break-Up. The major question is how governments in the United States used, and did not use, their powers on each new technology and how government’s action or inaction sped or slowed the spread of new technology to all Americans. This history leads to several conclusions and lessons for the future. First and most broad-sweeping, government should do a few things that have nothing to do with communications per se – preside over a rich, free country that values technology, innovation and freedom. Second, government should, if possible, limit its role to fixing obvious, persistent, and substantial problems, especially entrenched and unresponsive monopolies. Third, government’s scarce resources are best devoted to creating competition and abundance, not to regulating monopolies and the scarcity that they usually create. Fourth, government should avoid making a new technology a right until it has matured and succeeded in the marketplace. Fifth, government should cultivate the virtue of humility, especially by encouraging abundant free expression rather and not by favoring “good” content and discouraging “bad” content. Sixth and last, government should welcome disruptive, unpredictable, even chaotic new technologies. ISBN 1-879716-91-7 P-04-2

Piontkowsky, Curtis O.
Leaks in the Dike: Who Will Protect the National Information Infrastructure
[53 pages; September 2004/Research Report] ISBN 1-879716-93-3 P-04-3

Longstaff, P. H., Raja Velu, Jonathan Obar
Resilience for Industries in Unpredictable Environments: You Ought To Be Like Movies
[66 pages; June 2004/Research Report]
This paper looks at a puzzle facing many industries: How can they survive and thrive in rapidly changing and unpredictable environments? The ideas in the paper are intended to be useful to many industries and firms, but it uses the movie industry to test the applicability of some new work being done on resilience in unpredictable systems. Previous work has already shown that the U.S. movie industry (often referred to as Hollywood) is one of the least predictable industries in the world (in terms of which movies will be big hits) and it suffers some giant failures every year. Yet it is also one of the most successful and stable industries in the world, accounting for a very large share of U.S. exports every year. What works for the movie moguls may work for other organizations that find themselves in unpredictable environments. Rules of thumb are distilled that will be helpful for other industries and firms. These rules appear to be consistent with several widely accepted management theories, making it appear more likely that the rules from other systems will be relevant in developing resilience in business systems. ISBN 1-879716-90-9 P-04-1

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control
Guest Presentations, Spring 2004
[May 2004/Seminar] ISBN I-879716-89-5 I-04-1

Haave, Carol A.: Risk Management in the Department of Defense
Lowenthal, Mark M.: Intelligence Analysis
Murrett, Robert B.: Intelligence to Support Military Operations
Gannon, John C.: Intelligence and Homeland Security After 9/11
Cebrowski, Arthur K.: Control and Transformation
Dempsey, Joan A.: Intelligence and Homeland Security after 9/11
Rattray, Gregory J.: Securing Cyberspace
Liscouski, Robert P.: Taking Responsibility for Our Security
Pappas, Aris: Ryszard Kuklinski: A Case Officer's View

Popper, Charles
Achieving High-Quality Software Systems: A Comprehensive Approach to Testing and Validation
[62 pages; March 2004/Research Paper]
In the twenty-first century, with software a key force in daily life and its malfunctions a threat to health, safety, and economic well-being, the challenge is to ensure the highest possible quality in software systems. This report analyzes poor quality software systems, their effects and the nature of defects and their causes. The author applies the theory of quality management to achieving software quality, relating and applying concepts of total quality management and six sigma, as well as such specific concepts as defect detection and reliability estimation and prevention. Four principles of high-quality software are developed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the benefits of a good, comprehensive program for testing software quality, in particular, the benefits of independent quality experts managing the achievement and delivery of high quality software. P-04-1

2003 [go to top]

Barth, Gustave
Spectrum for Mobile Communications in the World
[86 pages; December 2003/Research Draft]
This paper explains how radio frequencies, or frequency bands, are allocated to public terrestrial mobile communications; particularly to cellular but also to Wi-Fi and other overlapping applications – an area that is not only difficult, but under multiple pressures to evolve. It examines relevant national and international spectrum management policies, and explores their long-term implications. It describes their precise background, current status and likely next steps. Analysis centers on the United States and on Europe, but also looks at some other parts of the world. Special sections are devoted to the two demographic giants, China and India, where "wireless" shows a phenomenal, though contrasted, development. We find that the number of different frequency bands used for mobile communications in the world is growing and will continue to grow, with uncertain impacts on the manufacturing and operating industries. This evolution makes the effective emergence of an attractive global cellphone increasingly difficult. Though 15 years ago the world community formally aimed at harmonization of pertinent frequencies and standards, the mobile phone which the traveller could use at any significant place remains an elusive and moving target, if not a pipe dream. Tracks to get closer to a solution are explored: multi-band (and multi-standard) technology research, greater attention to world-wide roaming paid by cellular operators, careful regulatory and policy moves, restoration of the global role of the International Telecommunications Union in selective spectrum harmonization.

Longstaff, P.H.
The Puzzle of Competition in the Communications Sector: Can Complex Systems be Regulated or Managed?
[47 pages; July 2003/Research Report]
The paper begins with a brief and multidisciplinary examination of complex, unpredictable systems and then explores what it means to “regulate” a system you can’t predict. The critical difference between tightly and loosely coupled systems is then examined in order to help devise different regulation for each of them. The paper also examines the potential utility of several ideas from the new science of networks and a concept called “practical drift” which may help explain how strong regulation can sometimes make complex systems unstable. Finally, the role of feedback in these systems is developed as a critical but often lacking element in their regulation. This feedback must include both data (“cow”) and context (“bull”). Both are necessary for business and government systems to develop knowledge and knowledgeable people (people able to use knowledge). The paper then discusses the current “acceptable parameters” used to regulate competition and how these parameters might be made more useful. Finally, the paper gives some examples of how all these ideas work together and some thoughts on specific strategies and tactics that will be more effective at regulating or managing unpredictable processes such as competition regulation ISBN 1-879716-87-9 P-03-1

Patrick, Sean M.
More Bandwidth Doesn't Mean What You Think It Means: Why the Air Force Cannot Utilize the Full Potential of Its Enterprise Information Technology Systems
[60 pages; July 2003/Research Draft]
This paper presents a technical argument for changing the architecture of the current Air Force (AF) unclassified computer network. The AF is fielding enterprise level applications, such as the AF portal, that require users all over the world to connect to a single server or small number of servers. All AF users must establish a network connection through their local base network, out from the base network security perimeter, through the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) operated Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET), through another network security perimeter, and finally through the destination base network to the enterprise application server. This paper explains how the process described above prohibits the AF from maximizing the potential of its enterprise applications.

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control
Guest Presentations, Spring 2003
[May 2003/Seminar] ISBN 1-879716-86-0 I-03-1

Clift, A. Denis: "Catching Field Mice": Intelligence and Policy in the Twenty-First Century
Meyerrose, Dale W.: Adapting the Military to the Homeland Defense and Homeland Security Missions
Lenczowski, Roberta E.: NIMA and the Intelligence Community
Stenbit, John P.: A Conversation with the Assistant Secretary of Defense for C3I
Hughes, Patrick M.: Future Conditions: The Character and Conduct of War, 2010 and 2020
Simon, James M. Jr.: Analysis, Analysts, and Their Role in Government and Intelligence

2002 [go to top]

Kalba, Kas
Telecom in the Time of Crash
[41 pages; November 2002/Incidental Paper]
This paper offers a perspective on how the world’s telecom industry has evolved from a sleepy utility to a competitive marketplace to an industry afflicted by bankruptcy and breakdown. The author traces the origins of the modern industry from AT&T’s breakup to its recent "crash," fostered by aggressive CEOs and investment bankers as well as faulty entrepreneurial visions and business models. He also touches on Europe’s misguided government policies in the case of next-generation mobile licensing and spectrum auctions ("3G"). The paper examines the shift from the largely successful introduction of competition in North America, Europe and developed Asia during the 1980s to the new leadership and financing approaches that were introduced in the mid and late 1990s. It summarizes the twin tendencies of decentralized technology innovation and industry growth (both within the United States and on a world scale) and of centralized industry guidance by financial and government entities. The paper assesses which companies have been winners and losers through these dynamic changes, emphasizing how new entrants such as Vodafone, Nokia, Hutchison and Cisco were able to challenge entrenched incumbents, not to mention prevailing theories that a few players would soon dominate the industry. Focusing on the fiber and 3G arenas, the last part of the paper outlines alternative theories of the telecom crash, provides an overall explanation, and addresses where the industry may be headed. The author presents several scenarios of what may come next and discusses the prospects of a new expanded government role. He ends by raising some questions about whether regulatory intervention is necessary to curb recent excesses or whether the market can be assumed to have learned its lesson. ISBN 1-879716-85-2 I-02-2

Butcher, Joseph, David Sulek, Erin MacDougall, Katie Hines, Anna Kertesz, and David Svec
Digital Democracy: Voting in the Information Age
[95 pages; October 2002/Research Report]
On Election Night in November of 2000, the United States was spellbound by one of the most controversial moments in its history. Over the next days and weeks, events in Florida offered both riveting political theater as well as illumination of ordinarily transparent electoral processes. Serious flaws in the electoral system were exposed: poorly designed ballots, old and faulty voting machines, inadequately trained poll workers, and disparate types of voting equipment and means of voter access, which often varied from precinct to precinct. In the aftermath, policymakers and legislators faced the difficultly of determining how best to reform the U.S. electoral system. The prospects for reform were complicated by several factors, in particular, the competing interests and equities of federal, state, and local jurisdictions and policymakers and the high costs of acquiring new voting equipment and training poll workers. One issue within this debate was the use of advanced technologies, specifically Internet technologies and applications, as an alternative to the traditional polling booth. At the time of this election, experiments with Internet voting were already under way but questions remained. This study of Internet voting examines five broad issues: access, security, privacy, technology, and civic participation. Each of these is important in its own right, but four practical considerations are key to moving toward a digital democracy: (1) Policymakers, legislators, technologists, and others need to consider Internet voting holistically. Along with technical issues of Internet security, reliability, and scale are equally complex issues related to U.S. voting customs, electoral procedures, election law, budgetary constraints, questions of fairness, and federalism. (2) A distinction needs to be made between Internet voting and election reform. Events in Florida in 2000 captured public attention, but the push toward Internet voting had begun before the public knew of the “butterfly ballot” or “hanging chad,” and this technology gives rise to issues related to, though not identical with, those involved in election reform. (3) Each of the five issues identified in this study—access, security, privacy, technology, and civic participation—will need to be examined in light of electoral tensions that the framers of the Constitution (and later thinkers) tried to balance. And (4), the problems encountered in 2000, along with increased interest in and experimentation with Internet voting, may yield constructive results. ISBN 1-879716-83-6 P-02-7

Faughn, Anthony W.
Interoperability: Is It Achievable?
[61 pages; October 2002/Research Report]
During the invasion of Grenada in 1983, shortfalls in interoperability among U.S forces, publicized by the press, became catalysts for later legislation and changes in policy, guidance, and procedures, as well as for attempts to resolve issues that had blocked the long road toward joint interoperability. To those within the services, and perhaps especially to those outside, it has seemed nearly incredible that interoperability problems persisted fifteen years later in Kosovo. The issue has not gone unrecognized. Joint Vision 2020 (2000) mandates interoperability; the CINCs of the unified and specified commands, the four service chiefs, and members of Congress all espouse its importance. How did these problems evolve? Why are commanders-in-chief and service staffs still concerned with interoperability? Interoperability is also a key building block of “information superiority.” In the absence of hard documentation on which to draw, this report presents an accessible account of the major issues associated with achieving interoperability. ISBN 1-879716-84-4 P-02-6

Clemons, Dean R.
Interlocking Stakes in NATO Security: A Primer on Investment, Dual-Use Technologies, and Export Control for the Military Leader in NATO
[46 pages; October 2002/Research Report]
War and human life have been coupled since before antiquity. Ares, the Greek god of war, wielding fist and sword, battled with immortals and mortals alike. More recently, as economies and politics have become increasingly interdependent—globalized—Janus, the Roman deity of doorways and passageways who faces two directions at once, has begun to take center stage, looking at both international stability and security. This study examines globalization from the perspectives of several interlocking stakes: international military and commercial investment; dual-use technologies; and export control. As a primer on these stakes for the rising military leader within the North Atlantic Treaty, the study elucidates the issue of cooperation vs. competition intrinsic to NATO and the European Union as these organizations seek together to increase transatlantic security. The enormous potential of dual-use technologies is examined, with a focus on the angst of military leaders about increasing dependence on technologies widely available commercially to both friend and foe. Last, the competing demands of openness of markets and of international security involved in those two stakes lead to consideration of the economic instrument of export control of technologies. To be successful in future conflicts, the military leader of tomorrow will need to be fluent not solely in military affairs as well as in the languages of economics and politics. Like globalization, coalition warfare is here to stay. Although interoperability of both systems and organizations remains desirable, competing demands of national economies pose significant challenges to achieving it. Although military operations may prove inevitable, the military leader will need to learn to leverage investment, dual-use technology, and export control laws to mitigate actual bloodshed. ISBN 1-879716-82-8 P-02-5

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control
Guest Presentations, Spring 2002
[June 2002/Seminar] ISBN 1-879716-81-X I-02-1

Plehal, James B.: The National Infrastructure Protection Center
Brannon, Robert B.: Human Intelligence
Radabaugh, Gregory C.: Information Operations
Rosenberg, Robert A.: Improved Application of Information to the Battlefield-Revisited
Salisbury, Gary L.: The C4ISR-Enabled Warfighter
Lenczowski, Roberta E.: The National Imagery and Mapping Agency
Rudman, Warren B.: Perspectives on National Security in the Twenty-First Century

Longstaff, P.H.
The Communications Toolkit: How to Build and Regulate Any Communications Business
[2002/Book] Cambridge, Mass,: The MIT Press ISBN 0-262-12246-4

Lavey, Warren G.
Making and Keeping Regulatory Promises
[64 pages; May 2002/Research Report]
Uncertainty about future regulatory requirements is a market condition affecting telecommunications operations worldwide. While some level of uncertainty about future regulations is inherent, regulatory uncertainty can diminish competition in telecommunications services, raise costs and prices, reduce investment in innovative services, limit network deployment and otherwise be adverse to the public interest. Regulators often respond to various legal, political, economic, technological and other factors by adopting orders of uncommitted duration without a well-defined sequence. However, under some conditions regulators have boldly made and kept (more or less) multiyear promises as to regulatory conditions. This paper examines examples of multiyear regulatory commitments in Mexico, Venezuela, Hungary and the United States, and analyzes the impacts of these regulatory conditions on telecommunications operators, consumers and governments. Multiyear regulatory promises can be made and enforced under some conditions, with resulting benefits to the public interest. This paper concludes with recommendations for legislators, regulators and judges to promote greater use of multiyear regulatory plans ISBN 1-879716-79-8 P-02-4

Daly, Peter H.
IT's Place in U.S. History: Information Technology as a Shaper of Society
[35 pages; April 2002/Research Report]
Every era embodies the conflict between inherited conditions and new ideas, and the “information age” is no exception. With the advantage of hindsight, history reveals patterns of cause and effect among an array of social and technological forces pitted at different times against one another. But, at the dawn of the twenty-first century and of the “information age,” events often may appear random and myriad stories are begun and interrupted. An observer can only speculate: What is holding it all together? What are the large themes? How can so many different impulses and pursuits amount to anything as coherent as a national direction? This report explores accommodation between inherited conditions in the United States, that is, a legacy of social structures, and the barrage of new ideas associated with the emerging information society. It reviews three historical periods—Colonization, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution—which influenced the formation of contemporary society and explores, in particular, what is called “the digital divide”—the gap between those who use computers and are connected to the Internet and those who do not and are not. The intention of the report is to help policymakers and others who must devise strategies and allocate resources on either a micro or macro scale to broaden their consideration of IT beyond mere connectivity and lead them toward a better understanding of the influences of IT on social structures in the future. ISBN 1-879716-68-2 P-02-3

Furst, Karen, William W. Lang, and Daniel E. Nolle
Internet Banking: Developments and Prospects.
[55 pages; April 2002/Research Report]
This report addresses significant gaps in knowledge about the Internet banking landscape. Using information drawn from a survey of national bank examiners, the authors find that although only 20 percent of U.S. national banks offered Internet banking in the third quarter (Q3) of 1999, these transactional Internet banks accounted for almost 90 percent of national banking system assets and 84 percent of the total number of small deposit accounts. All the largest national banks offered Internet banking, but only about 7 percent of the smallest banks offered it. Among institutions offering Internet banking, large banks are more likely than small ones to offer a broad range of services on the Internet. An exception to the superior performance of Internet banks versus non-Internet banks were de novo Internet banks, which were less profitable and less efficient than non-Internet de novos. The authors developed statistical models to explain why banks choose to adopt Internet banking and why some choose to offer a relatively wider array of Internet banking products and services. The report investigated whether offering Internet banking affects a bank’s profitability. Bank profitability was found to be strongly correlated with Internet banking, but offering Internet banking does not have a statistically significant impact on bank profitability. Rather, the more aggressive business posture of early adopters of Internet banking is more likely to explain both their relatively higher profitability and their decision to offer Internet banking. Among banks that offer Internet banking, larger banks and banks that offered the service for a longer time were significantly more likely to offer a wider range of services on the Internet. ISBN 1-879716-79-8 P-02-2

Kim, Seon-Jae
The Digital Economy and the Role of Government: Information Technology and Economic Performance in Korea
[37 pages; January 2002/Research Report]
This study presents an analysis of economic performance of the Korean economy during roughly 1971–2000 that recognizes the importance of information technology (IT) and knowledge capital. The growth contributions were calculated from standard input factors and characterized as follows. Most of the contribution to output growth comes from physical capital input, accounting for 73 percent, rather than labor capital, which accounted for only 15 percent. The business cycle is one of the determinants of the output growth rate, accounting for 8 percent of the total growth. The average annual growth rate of the total factor productivity (TFP) during the period 1971–2000 was about 0.3 percent, while that of the business cycle was about 0.6 percent, although between 1996 and 2000, it increased slightly. The report also examines the source of productivity growth, using the extended growth model and drawing attention to the role IT may have played. Although some shortcomings may limit the scope of the empirical work, the results appear worth consideration. ISBN 1-879716-77-1 P-02-1

2001 [go to top]

Cartney, Michael.
The Art of Balancing Information Security and Information Sharing.
[69 pages; December 2001/Research Paper]
All organizations face the challenge of finding an appropriate balance between sharing information and securing it against potential threats. This is equally true for small start-up information-technology companies considering what to tell potential strategic partners or for the U.S. government deciding what military intelligence information to share with allies and potential coalition partners. Operational security often conflicts with operational effectiveness. In a global, high-tech, information-oriented environment, with exploding demands for both information sharing and security (IS&S), achieving a good balance between them has become critical to organizational survival. This report presents an original framework that provides organizations with the tools and concepts to identify, capture, focus, and address influences on IS&S. Rather than prescribe solutions, the framework allows organizations to ask and address key questions about IS&S that other approaches may leave unanswered or incomplete. Here the word business is used in a generic sense, to mean getting something accomplished; similarly, operations and operational aspects are used to mean the activities required to accomplish something. The framework is intended to be applicable to a variety of organizations, and each may insert its own terminology and customize the tools provided in order to identify an appropriate balance between sharing and security in its own setting. ISBN 1-879716-78-X P-01-4

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 2001.
[July 2001/Seminar] ISBN 1-879716-76-3 I-01-3

Allard, C. Kenneth: Business Intelligence: Open Sources and Methods
Roby, Cheryl J.: Challenges Facing the Defense Department in the Twenty-First Century
O'Neill, Richard P.: The Highlands Forum Process
Raduege, Harry D., Jr.: DISA and NCS
Moorman, Thomas S., Jr.: The Commission to Assess U.S. National Security Space Management and Organizations
Wilson, Thomas R.: Asymmetric Approaches to Joint Vision 2020
Simon, James M., Jr.: Crucified on a Cross of Goldwater-Nichols
Yoshihara, Toshi: Chinese Information Warfare: A Phantom Menace or Emerging Threat?

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 2000.
[July 2001/Seminar] ISBN 1-879716-74-7 I-01-1

Mark, Hans: The Doctrine of Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence: A Gentle Critique
Edmonds, Albert J.: Managing Your E-Business:Electrifying Reality
Meyerrose, Dale W.: Networks, Information Technology, and Paved Cowpaths
Allen, Charles E.: Intelligence: Cult, Craft, or Business?
Hoechst, Timothy G.: I3I: Information, Information, Information, and Information
Montgomery, Mark C.: Cyber Threats: Developing a National Strategy for Defending Our Cyberspace
Garstka, John J.: Information Superiority for the Warfighter
Snook, Scott A.: Leading Complex Organizations: Lessons from a Tragic Organizational Failure

Ryan, Julie J. C. H.
Information Security Practices and Experiences in Small Businesses.
[173 pages; May 2001/Incidental Paper]
Although many attempts have been made to characterize the practices and experiences of businesses with regard to information security, most have suffered from biases that disallow generalizing the common state of practice or concern and from flaws in methodology or weaknesses in design that have led them to ignore the small business community, which is a critical sector of both the economy of the United States and the global economy. The method used for this research was a descriptive study with data collected from responses to a questionnaire distributed to 741 businesses nationwide in the first quarter of 2000. The research based on the responses describes the use by small businesses of information security in relation to management tools and technology tools, as well as the importance those businesses accorded to various classes of information during the previous year. Results were compared to 14 other surveys. The findings indicated that information security practices in small businesses are fairly spotty: even common technologies were little used, except for antivirus software and password protection for systems. Few respondents reported experiencing problems of information security, and anecdotal evidence suggests that the lack of technology problems may signify a lack of ability to notice them. Further research may be needed to identify and explain why small businesses adopt some management tools but not others, why they use some technologies but not others, and how experience affects the way a small business will operate. ISBN 1-879716-75-5 I-01-2

Longstaff, P. H.
New Ways to Think About the Visions Called “Convergence”: A Guide for Business and Public Policy
[82 pages; April 2001/Research Report]
Convergence: everyone talks about it but no one is sure what it means. This report is intended for those who need to sort out what convergence means in order to make decisions about investments, career changes, or public policy in the communications and computer industries. Of the many visions of what convergence will look like, some are complementary, others contradictory. Will it mean the death of “old” communications media and the birth of new communications networks to deliver all messages? Is it the migration of old media to new distribution platforms? the addition of new platforms to old ones? one box in every home, replacing telephones, computers, and TV sets? Is it two or three multinational companies that will rebundle communications services to sell them as a single package? The best answer appears to be “maybe,” because another force at work is divergence. This report examines the forces moving the communications and computer industries together as well as those moving them apart. ISBN 1-879716-72-0 P-01-3

Hays, George W.
Do Mobile Satellite Service Systems Fundamentally Improve Military Communications Capabilities? An Operational Perspective
[45 pages; April 2001/Research Report]
Mobile satellite service (MSS) systems have the potential to expand the capabilities of military users significantly, especially at the tactical level. These systems feature small (typically, handheld) portable terminals that allow users to communicate by satellites that provide digital voice, data, paging, and facsimile (fax) services. Users can communicate on the move, without needing to transport bulky communications gear. In the past, the limited bandwidth available on Department of Defense (DOD) tactical satellites has restricted this communications capability to only users with especially high status or deep pockets. The emergence of MSS systems may change that paradigm and allow a broad array of mobile users to enter the world of satellite communications (SATCOM), potentially affecting the command hierarchy by enabling individuals and small teams to exchange information directly and easily with much higher authority around the world. This report describes past and current uses of mobile communication systems in the military and offers a concise summary of the capabilities and costs of various commercial MSS systems with an analysis of potential applications of these capabilities in both combat and noncombat missions, and in some civilian mobile operations relevant to military activities. ISBN 1-879716-73-9 P-01-2

Sivan, Yesha Y.
Nine Keys to a Knowledge Infrastructure: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Organizational Knowledge Management
[21 pages; March 2001/Research Paper]
Knowledge management (KM) is emerging as an activity that demands increasing attention from management in today’s knowledge-based organizations. Since the early 1990s there has been a constant stream of both theoretical work on various aspects of KM and practical hands-on efforts. As is frequently true of emerging fields, a bridge between theory and practice may be missing, but too often KM theory highlights only parts of practical KM efforts, generalizes too broadly for use by an actual organization, or lacks value for people in the organization’s trenches. To bridge theory and practice, this work proposes one unified analytic framework for KM that will allow organizations to plan, implement, and evaluate their KM activities. The proposed framework—consisting of nine keys to a knowledge infrastructure—is designed to be simple enough to work with while also powerful enough to generate insights about KM that can lead to productive action. ISBN 1-879716-70-4 P-01-1

Da Costa, Eduardo
Global E-Commerce Strategies for Small Businesses
[2001/Book] Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press ISBN 0-262-04190-1

Rattray, Gregory J.
Strategic Warfare in Cyberspace.
[2001/Book] Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press ISBN 0-262-18209-2

2000 [go to top]

Jung, H. S.
The Telecommunications Market in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges.
[64 pages; November 2000/Research Report]
Korea has made significant progress in developing its telecommunications infrastructure and services market since the early 1980s. In the 1980s, the policy priority was to satisfy the demand for basic telephony by constructing telecom infrastructure and establishing public telecom service providers, including KT (Korea Telecom). In the 1990s, the priority was to introduce competition, deregulation, and privatization of public telecom service providers and to promote enhanced telecommunications services and the information telecommunications (IT) industry. The Korean government played a critical role in this progress, but telecom policy in Korea now needs to deal with certain pending issues: timely resolution of existing regulatory issues to ensure competition; provision of independence and authority to the regulatory body; separation of the regulatory function from industry promotion policy; and elimination of restrictions on foreign ownership in basic telecom services. The Korean government will need to strengthen its role as a strong supporter of an antitrust mechanism and as guardian of consumers' rights and benefits, and to establish a new business model that will incorporate not only the reinforced regulatory functions but also industrial policies. All the major players will need to be prepared for the potential globalization and convergence of IT technology and related markets and legal institutions. An appendix contains a graphical presentation based on the text. ISBN 1-879716-69-0 P-00-6

Taschdjian, Martin.
From Open Networks to Open Markets: How Public Policy Affects Infrastructure Investment Decisions.
[66 pages; November 2000/Research Report]
This report examines the theoretical underpinnings and application of the primary current (2000) telecommunications regulatory model, the Open Network Model (ONM); it concludes that this model has slowed investment in local networks, thereby limiting the spread of facilities-based competition for most local-access telecommunications services. Because open network policies encourage the development of services and service providers that rely unduly on existing local networks, rather than being the solution to engender competition, ONP has become the problem. The report offers a different policy framework, called the Open Market Model (OMM), to replace the ONM. New theoretical underpinnings are needed for the proposed OMM. Neoclassical economic theory needs to be replaced by theory based on evolutionary economics and differentiated competition. The premise for the new theory is that neither the regulator nor the entrepreneur can predict with certainty the outcome of a dynamic competitive process. The competitive market process is, by its nature, a search for unanticipated, innovative solutions. Under OMM, the focus of regulatory intervention is on demonstrated market failures. By distinguishing enduring failures from transitory ones, the model provides a path for regulatory withdrawal in favor of competition law, once appropriate conditions have been met. ISBN 1-879716-67-4 P-00-5

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Knowledge Innovations: The Endless Adventure.
[42 pages; November 2000/Incidental Paper]
Keynote Address, American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIST) Annual Meeting 2000, 13 November 2000, Chicago, Illinois. ISBN 1-879716-66-6 I-00-4

Myers, Roc A.
Strategic Knowledgecraft: Operational Art for the Twenty-First Century
[60 pages; September 2000/Research Report]
One of the most complex tasks of the U.S. national security community is creating the richest possible set of integrated military, economic, and diplomatic alternatives for decisonmakers to use-a task made even more difficult in the absence of effective doctrine, operational strategies, and tactics for effective marshalling and mobilizing of this community's collective knowledge (CK). Since the 1960s, the national-security information strategy has been technology-driven: focussed on the creation, movement, and storage of information but not on investing significant resources to manage CK and prepare it for retail consumption. Decisionmakers are problem-driven. They prefer to have substantive information marshalled according to problems they are trying to solve or options they are developing and then mobilized for quick assimilation into their working knowledge. The ability to exploit available knowledge quickly and confidently is critical at all levels of command. Agile, precise, and global military operations envisioned for the next decades will be possible only through sustained, deliberate management of the national security community's working knowledge. This report proposes a doctrinal concept strategic knowledge operations (SKO) and the operational concepts of collective knowledge and knowledge marshalling and mobilization for dialogue among joint, interdepartmental, interdisciplinary staff by identifying challenges that the leadership of the national security community may need to address if the United States is to develop knowledgecraft and CK management as a core competitive capability. ISBN 1-879716-64-X P-00-4

Ungerer, Herbert.
Access Issues Under EU Regulation and Antitrust Law: The Case of Telecommunications and Internet Markets.
[34 pages; July 2000/Incidental Paper]
In the Internet age, access has become a key issue for regulation and antitrust. Many Internet libertarians count on low costs of entry and a robust competitive environment, but many segments of the new Internet-based economy, driven by the perceived requirement to show worldwide presence to reach scale economies, might develop towards structures controlled by highly dominant enterprises. This paper reviews three issues which are fundamental to driving theory and practice with regard to access to telecommunications and the Internet in the European Union: (1) the current EU framework of access and interconnection to the basic layer of Internet access, the telecommunications network; (2) recent (1999–2000) changes to the system, even though the current reform process has not yet concluded; and (3) access and control of the Internet and the concept of “top-level Internet connectivity,” which have become central in this context. ISBN 1-979716-65-8 I-00-3

Daly, Peter H.
Soldiers, Constables, Bankers, and Merchants: Managing National Security Risks in the Cyber Era.
[39 pages; June 2000/Research Report]
During the cold war, as the political world froze into an east-west balance of power, the commercial world evolved into a complex, flexible network of business relationships that came to provide the basis of the global economy of the 1990s. From the end of World War II until the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, the development of much of the United States’s high technology, including the Internet, was driven by defense of U.S. security interests. Parallel developments in communications and transportation, however, transcended cold war tensions, by creating the basic infrastructure needed for an open global economy to mature, and bolstered U.S. security strategy, by encouraging development of freer markets as barriers to the spread of communism. This nexus of national security, which in those years was considered the exclusive province of government, and commerce, as carried out by banks and corporations, placed government and business in a sometimes volatile but always vital partnership which the end of the cold war substantially altered. This report considers the major forces for change—economic globalization, advancing information technology, and the diminution of government—as they influence the respective national security roles of business and government. It also identifies key national security institutional stakeholders and addresses their traditional mission questions in light of changing conditions. ISBN 1-879716-62-3 P-00-3

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1999.
[June 2000/Seminar]
In the spring of 1999 the seminar examined the evolution since World War II of the concepts, technologies, and institutions of the U.S. intelligence and military communities and, in particular, the linkages of that evolution with international security and domestic policies. Speakers representing both the military and civilian communities offered a variety of presentations-for example, on organizational agility, protection of systems, global information services, information warfare-in which developed similarities were developed and evaluated between the functions and support systems of the intelligence staff and the command-and-control line on the one hand and the business management information and decisionmaking functions and support systems on the other. ISBN 1-879716-63-1 I-00-2

Cunningham, Charles J.: Information Technology and Organizational Agility
Daguio, Kawika.: Protecting the Financial and Payment System by Dispelling Myths
Hughes, Patrick M.: Future Threats and Challenges
Daly, Peter H.: Critical Infrastructure Protection
Jajko, Walter.: Department of Defense Information Operations: A Critical Commentary
Kelley, David J.: Providing Global Information Services to the Warfighter
Rattray, Gregory J.: Defensive Strategic Information Warfare: Challenges for the United States
Van Cleave, Michelle K.: Infrastructure Protection and Assurance
Marsh, Robert T.: Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure
Fort, Randall M.: Whither the Elephant? Public-Private Sector Dynamics in the Information Realm

LeGates, John C. B.
Open Access in the Local Telephone Loop: A Grand Tour of the Entangled Issues.
[23 pages; April 2000/Incidental Paper]
In a frenzied market, cable and telephone companies are building high-speed Internet connections to the home. Should governments force the companies to open their lines to competitors? Should the companies open them up even without coercion? This paper rounds up issues involved in these decisions, such as public interest rights versus the drying up of capital investment. It looks at the precedents of governance, namely, the traditions of common carriage, public utility, interconnection, universal service, and open networks, and examines some of the issues of corporate strategy, including the following: the clash between the common carriage telco tradition and the exclusive deal cable one; conflicts for traditional carriers when they try to compete with their traditional customers; competition between companies that use traditionally priced capital and those that use “dot.com”-priced capital; and bundling and branding in an increasingly fragmented marketplace. Originally a talk given in Australia in November of 1999 at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University/Centre for International Research on Communication and Information Technologies (CIRCIT). ISBN 1-879716-61-5 I-00-1

Longstaff, P. H.
Networked Industries: Patterns in Development, Operation, and Regulation.
[90 pages; March 2000/Research Report]
At the end of the twentieth century, as governments and businesses worldwide were seeking ways to organize and govern networks, the introduction of competition into those for communications, transportation, and energy upset old rules for cooperation and altered dynamics. The Internet (a new network built in part on several old ones) presented regulators and businesses with what appear to be new challenges. All networks share certain characteristics and thus have lessons to teach one another. Their histories of development are similar, as are their responses (not all of them expected) to the introduction of competition. The oldest communications network, the postal system, may offer lessons and precedents for the development of the Internet, just as the introduction of competition into the airline network may have lessons for the introduction of competition into telecommunications networks. And the differences between networks discussed here, of course, may be just as important as the similarities. ISBN 1-879716-60-7 P-00-2

Popper, Charles.
A Holistic Approach to IT Governance.
[25 pages; February 2000/Research Report]
The challenge of governing an enterprise’s Information Technology(IT) function, although of interest within the IT community for years, has recently become a concern of senior business management. Strategic alignment of IT with the business is now being emphasized, as well as approaches to management of the IT portfolio, yet efforts so far have not attained the alignment and integration senior management want. An approach to management of IT is needed that is inclusive—with a scope that truly reflects the range of activities and responsibilities of IT—and specific. This report offers such an approach to IT as a holistic framework that addresses three primary objectives: (1) it fosters strategic and tactical alignment of IT with the business; (2) it relates the cost of IT to the value brought to the business; and (3) it supports a drive toward operational excellence. ISBN 1-879716-59-3 P-00-1

Wu, Ouyang.
Deregulating Telecommunications in the United States.
[January 2000/Other]
This study looks first at the background of the U.S. telecommunications industry: its history, the development of telecom technology and networks, and who the regulators are. With that background established, the study then examines particular issues and problems that arise in regulation and deregulation, including the following: industry boundaries; regulating the rate of monopoly; the AT&T divestiture (1984); restructuring of the Bell system; access charges; the Telecommunications Act of 1996; incentive regulation and price caps; universal service; and the Internet. A series of appendixes provides historical documents and related discussion.

Snook, Scott A.
Friendly Fire: The Accidental Shootdown of U.S. Black Hawks over Northern Iraq.
[2000/Book] Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000.

1999 [go to top]

Northfield, Dianne.
The Information Policy Maze: Global Challenges—National Responses.
[1999/Book] Melbourne, RMIT University Press.
In the 1990s, many nations have produced strategies for the development and use of information and communications services (ICS). Recognizing economic and social benefits that can result from a modern communications infrastructure and from the strategic use of ICS, governments have jumped on the "information superhighway" bandwagon. In spite of national differences, a focus on the nature and level of competition to be introduced across ICS sectors has proved global, with wide diversity in the extent of competition introduced and in its management. Interdependencies across ICS sectors have grown, but differences in market structures, levels of competition and issues, and barriers influencing growth remain. Another "common" feature has been examination of appropriate roles for governments, market participants, and the community. As nations implement ICS policies, the effectiveness and acceptance of market and regulatory mechanisms has varied across both issues and ICS sectors. The challenge lies in finding the appropriate balance. This report identifies, prioritizes, and examines a range of global issues related to ICS policy and industry development, with a particular focus on examination of the basis and outcomes of decisions in several areas. National experiences in Australia, Canada, U.K, U.S., the European Union, France, Singapore, Japan, Malaysia, and Korea dealing with issues in the development and use of ICS may provide important lessons for nations examining the results of their approaches and as a guide for nations reviewing their policies.

Fairbanks, Walter P.
Information Superiority: What Is It? How to Achieve It?
[69 pages; June 1999/Research Report]
It has become fashionable to talk about “achieving information superiority” in the context of such new warfare concepts as network-centric warfare, knowledge-based warfare, command and control (C2) warfare, information warfare, to name only a few of the trendiest. This report has three goals: first, to clarify what the term “information superiority” means and how information superiority can be achieved; second, to ascertain whether information superiority can be measured by assessing the performance of C4ISR systems during military operations; and, third, to explore two scenarios for improving the Department of Defense’s (DOD) approach to modernization of C4ISR systems and enhancing interoperability. ISBN 1-879716-58-5 P-99-4

Iwata, Satoshi.
Connecting to the Home: Alternatives for the Last Mile.
[41 pages; June 1999/Research Report]
In the mid-1990s, the Internet became the third electrical medium-after the telephone and television (TV)-that people using personal computers (PCs) at home can use to obtain or exchange information globally. Most residential users in the United States and Japan access the Internet through the public switched telephone network (PSTN), at speeds that vary depending on the capacity of the modem used. Higher speed connectivity, proposed or provided as of 1997, includes the integrated services digital network (ISDN), community access TV (CATV), digital subscriber lines (DSLs), satellite communications, mobile communications, local multipoint distribution services (LMDS), and multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS). Internet access via a high-altitude, long-endurance platform (HALE) or electric power lines has also been proposed. Two kinds of contents require high-speed Internet access: streaming video and audio; and embedded software files, for example, to enhance the look of World Wide Web pages, including software that users are encouraged to download for use at the particular Web site. The wide choice of high-speed Internet access services available as of early 1998 means users must check actual availability, price, and quality, and factors that affect the choice of service include contents, "user friendliness" of the interface (or navigation) guide, and Internet TV devices. ISBN 1-879716-57-7 P-99-3

Read, William H., and Ronald Alan Weiner.
FCC Reform: Does Governing Require a New Standard?
[41 pages; April 1999/Research Report]
The Telecommunications Act of 1996, which sought to transform the regulatory landscape of communications, contemplated the creation of competition even in areas such as local telephone service but did not address the issue of reform of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which would probably need to take into account a continuing central role for the agency in shaping the telecommunications industries. Instead of dismantling the FCC or curtailing its powers, this paper suggests an additional option for Congress: redefining the public interest standard under which the FCC operates. Under this option, Congress would explicitly direct the FCC to adopt a public interest standard that incorporates procompetititve antitrust principles. ISBN 1-879716-55-0 P-99-1

Yokoyama, Kunie.
Voice Over the Internet: Fad or Future?
[135 pages; March 1999/Research Report]
This report describes and analyses efforts to provide real-time communications over the Internet, in particular, voice over the Internet (VOI). There are three kinds of VOI, each with its own purpose and targeted to a different user, and their technological development represents progress toward increasing simplicity, ease of use, and universal accessibility. A fundamental problem for real-time communications is network congestion—congestion of Internet backbones and of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). VOI offers a price advantage over voice telephony, an advantage dependent on the prices of the PSTN and the Internet. This advantage may be reduced in the future by cheaper provision of the PSTN and a higher price for use of the Internet along with price diversification for Internet applications, which could increase the price of VOI. ISBN 1-879716-56-9 P-99-2

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Fall 1997.
[January 1999/Seminar]
In the fall of 1997, rather than focus on a particular theme, speakers addressed a variety of topics centered on evolving information needs in the 21st century. Underlying these presentations was a recognition that information, with the capabilities it creates, has become not only the driver of effective military strategy and politics but also a "center of gravity" that developed nations must protect. The speakers, representing both military and civilian communities, illustrated this recognition by examples that ranged from satellite-based intelligence collection to a "smartcard" system," which would reduce the dependence on cash for commercial transactions. ISBN 1-879716-54-2 I-99-2

Rankine, Robert R., Jr.: Military Applications of Commercial SATCOM Systems
DeMarines, Victor A.: FFRDC Business at MITRE
Hall, Keith R.: Space Systems as Contributors to Information Superiority
Clontz, William R.: C3I Issues from a United Nations Perspective-Revisited
Minihan, Kenneth A.: Shaping the Intelligence Environment in the Information Age
Lichstein, Henry A.: The Smartcard as the Ultimate Thin Client: Looking Beyond the New York Smartcard Pilot
Sheehan, John J.: Planning Information Operations for a Changing World

Read, William H.
Knowledge As a Strategic Business Resource.
[27 pages; January 1999/Incidental Paper]
The post-industrial enterprise is primarily a knowledge-based organization whose wealth creation relies in large measure on knowledge resources. Five knowledge resources common in the modern enterprise are examined: business concept(s); enterprise know-how; organizational design; knowledge workers; and knowledge mediated with information technology. Management of these knowledge resources requires practices that differ from those of the industrial age. Then, command-and-control management was deemed necessary to implement a wealth-creating economic formula that emphasized the efficient allocation of land, labor, and capital resources, while lesser emphasis was placed on the effective management of knowledge resources. For the five knowledge resources, suggestions are made on how each can more effectively be managed. ISBN 1-879716-53-4 I-99-1

Jonscher, Charles
The Evolution of Wired Life: From the Alphabet to the Soul-Cather Chip? How Information Technologies Change Our World
[1999/Book] John Wiley & Sons

Jonscher, Charles
Wired Life: Who Are We in the Digital Age?
[1999/Book] London: Bantam Press ISBN 0-593-94315-4

Lederman, Gordon N.
Reorganizing the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986.
[1999/Book] Westport, Conn., and London: Greenwood Press (Contributions in Military Studies, No. 182), 1999.

Compaine, Benjamin M., and William H. Read, Eds.
The Information Resources Policy Handbook: Research for the Information Age.
[1999/Book] Cambridge, Mass., and London, Eng.: The MIT Press.
An Age of Information has its modern base in the Age of Science and Technology that characterized the twentieth century. Previously, technology and invention came along as human supplements for human activities in moving and exercising: the wheel and its mechanization for locomotion; energy conversion such as the steam engine and distributed electricity, dynamos, and motors. But the analogs in communication--the printing press, the telegraph, the telephone--were complements to other activities in the thinking and doing of people. This book is dedicated to Anthony G. Oettinger, founder of the Program on Information Resources Policy at Harvard University, who was among the very few who recognized that major parts of the surging science and technology of the early twentieth century would converge with inventive design and conceptual uses of knowledge. ISBN 0-262-03264-3

1998 [go to top]

Singh, Supriya.
Understanding the Use of Electronic Money: The Missing Factor in Policy.
[25 pages; November 1998/Research Report]
The ability to move money across borders, with or without going through regulated financial institutions, raises issues of security, privacy, regulation, taxation, loss of revenue, impact on monetary policy, and detection of criminal activity. In Australia, these issues are increasingly discussed by regulators and providers of payments services, but without an understanding of how people use electronic money or of the way money shapes and is shaped by social relations and cultural values. Thus, issues of access and trust, central to consumer use of the payments system, are displaced. This report draws on two qualitative studies of electronic money in Australia and, rather than focus primarily on technologies, payments instruments, or transaction modes, it analyzes the social and cultural meanings of electronic money from the perspective of the residential user, thus putting people's payments activities at the center of the analysis. ISBN 0864447582 P-98-5

Longstaff, P. H.
Competition and Cooperation: From Biology to Business Regulation.
[58 pages; October 1998/Research Report]
Many economists and biologists have begun to view the similarities between their two systems as more than coincidence, and studying both offers new tools for policymakers and business executives seeking a deeper understanding of competition and cooperation. Competition and cooperation are two sides of the same coin, not, as usually taken, opposite ends of a spectrum with points of relatively more or less in between. It is possible to cooperate with respect to one resource and compete with respect to another, or cooperate at one time and at another compete. Another property of competition and cooperation is that one can cause the other. Thus, it might have been predictable that introducing competition into the telecommunications sector would raise the level of cooperation as players seek a competitive advantage; and increasing the level of competition may signal a decrease in the number of competitors. Scarcity is generally discussed in terms of scarcity of channel capacity and used as the theoretical underpinning for allocation of that scarce resource by government. This report assumes that a scarce resource may include consumers of communications products and services. Customers for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint services are not unlimited, and their allocation by the market (i.e., by competition) will be the primary focus of communications business analysis, policy, and antitrust law in the foreseeable future. ISBN 1-879716-51-8 P-98-4

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Information Technologies, Governance and Government: Some Insights from History.
[68 pages; September 1998/Incidental Paper]
This slide presentation, initially made at the third annual Visions of Governance for the Twenty-First Century retreat (Bretton Woods, N.H., July 20, 1998), rests on the conviction that the information revolution, so-called, is in many ways a slow evolution, with some unique features but also with patterns familiar from their recurrence with other technologies at other times. Hence, history may offer lessons for grappling with the implications of the growth, since at least the 1950s, in the exploitation of the potential of compunications (computer-and-communications) technologies expanding into many spheres of life. History, however, has a serious flaw: histories are written by the winners. The dynamics of social evolution are unfathomable, and history is no meaningful guide to the present without including the losers. This presentation is an attempt to pinpoint the gap between the predictable and the unpredictable. ISBN 1-879716-52-6 I-98-4

Spar, Debora L.
A World of Lawyers: The Internationalization of Legal Practice.
[33 pages; August 1998/Research Report]
Since the late 1960s, a number of U.S. and British law firms have quietly and successfully gone global. Traipsing after their far-flung corporate clients, these law firms have established their own global networks. Unlike manufacturing firms that preceded them abroad, law firms are essentially service firms, selling information, skills, and advice. This report explores how law firms entered the international economy and highlights issues particularly relevant to their success and sustainability. It finds four factors have contributed most directly to their success-size, reputation, "walking assets," and a balance between global and local interests-and that these factors are not specific to the legal profession but applicable also to other information-based industries. ISBN 1-879716-50-X P-98-3

Besson, Paul M.
The Goldwater-Nichols Act: A Ten-Year Report Card.
[69 pages; June 1998/Research Report]
In the mid-1980s, discussions of the military effectiveness of the United States were focussed on the organization of the Department of Defense (DOD) and on U.S. military performance. The Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, or Goldwater-Nichols Act (GNA), was designed to restore U.S. military effectiveness by shifting power away from the individual military services toward joint institutions within the DOD-the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Joint Staff, and the Commanders in Chief of the Unified and Specified Commands. This report assesses the effect of GNA on the U.S. armed forces and offers, from a command-and-control perspective, a ten-year report card for GNA, indicating the ways mandated changes resulted in significant improvements. It also identifies "unfinished business," including duplication of staff efforts within the Pentagon, the seismic impact of improvements in technology, the need for acquisition reform and for command, control, communications, and intelligence (C4I) interoperability. ISBN 1-879716-49-6 P-98-2

Rothman, John.
Tasini Revisited, or Freelance Writings in the High-Tech Age (cont.).
[19 pages; May 1998/Incidental Paper]
The copyright infringement suit brought in the winter of 1993–94 by a group of freelance writers against a group of periodicals and electronic media reached its conclusion, at least at the U.S. District Court level, when the Court dismissed it, granting summary judgment to the defense. The claims of the authors of the individual articles are weighed against the responses of the periodical publishers (as holders of copyright in the compilation) and the electronic media (as their licensees) on the basis of four major issues involved in the transfer of a compilation from print-on-paper to CD-ROMs and computer databases, with detailed analyses of the main arguments presented by the litigants and the rulings and opinions of the court. ISBN 1-879716-48-6 I-98-3

Goodman, David J.
Standards for Personal Communications in Europe and the United States.
[63 pages; April 1998/Research Report]
In the 1990s, the markets and technology for cellular and personal communications have been among the most dynamic areas of the economy. As in other branches of information technology, the technology of personal communications is embodied in published standards, but the standards for personal communications systems are exceptional in several ways: (1) they are directly influenced by government regulatory policy; (2) they are created before the underlying technology is mature; and (3) markets have accepted a proliferating number of standards rather than consolidating around one single standard. This report chronicles the history of cellular and personal communications standards in Europe and the United States, analyzing the standards in the context of economic theories developed since around 1980, with an emphasis on changes that have occurred since the early 1980s, when the first cellular systems reached the market, and on the differences between government policies in Europe and the United States. ISBN 1-879716-46-1 P-98-1

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1997.
[April 1998/Seminar]
In the spring of 1997, speakers elaborated on aspects of "information warfare"-the primary theme of the two previous years. Certain aspects of this issue recurred in several presentations: distinguishing between "strategic" information warfare and criminal activity; assessing the developed nations' vulnerability to attack on the information infrastructure; and achieving information superiority in battlefield situations. Several speakers provided historical perspectives on the interactions among technical advances, intelligence, and defense policy. All presentations emphasized the growing importance of reliable and responsible intelligence collection and of interoperable military systems at a time of decreasing defense budgets. ISBN 1-879716-47-X I-98-2

Heymann, Philip B.: Relationships Between Law Enforcement and Intelligence in the Post-Cold War Era
Allard, Kenneth.: Information Warfare: Hieararchies or Networks?
Clift, Denis.: Intelligence: The Left Hand of Curiosity
Bucholz, Douglas D.: Ensuring Interoperability in Military Communications Systems: The J-6 Campaign Plan
Donahue, Arnold E.: Perspectives on U.S. Intelligence
Briggs, Charles A.: CIA Paths Toward the Information Highway
Jones, Anita K.: Defense Science and Technology: Foundation of the Future
Alberts, David S.: 21st Century National Security Challenges
Rattray, Gregory J.: Strategic Information Warfare

Minamikawa, Setsuko.
Changing Money: Cash and Cards, Virtual and Electronic.
[56 pages; March 1998/Research Draft]
As of early 1998, more than fifty electronic money services were undergoing trials. These can be divided into two categories, one using the Internet, such as Digicash's “ecash” and CyberCash, and the other using integrated circuit (IC) cards, or “smart cards,” such as Mondex and VisaCash. Consumers, not government, the central bank, or commercial banks, will ultimately decide which services they want to use by comparing levels of security, service fees, service contents, and means of payment (such as payment on the Internet and IC-card-based electronic money). The competition between electronic money providers is severe, but there will be users for each category of payments because different customers will always have different needs and because it will be up to the customer to decide which product to use, depending on individual needs.

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Context for Decisions: Global and Local Information Technology Issues.
[23 pages; January 1998/Incidental Paper]
This paper is based on presentations made by the author to Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT), Korea Telecom, Fujitsu Research Institute, and at Harvard Universityþs Center for International Affairs, all in 1997. The aim of the paper is to paint a picture of the context in which private and public decisions must be made concerning information and communicationsþstrategic and tactical decisions, decisions by businesses and governments, decisions about marketing, sales, production, control, research and development, and so on. They include decisions by suppliers of information and communications, by consumers of information and communications, and by the referees (private, governmental, or international) to whom the world looks to resolve disputes. Interdependenceþglobalismþis growing, but just as there are wellsprings of commonalities, there are also wellsprings of local differences. In the realm of information and communications products and services, such differences modulate global trends, so that businesses mature not at the pace of technological innovation but at a slower pace resulting from needs to adapt the expression of globally available technology to local preferences. I-98-1

1997 [go to top]

Ernst, Martin L.
At the Heart of Evolving Literacy: A Framework for Action.
[117 pages; December 1997/Research Report]
This report is concerned with information, technology, education, and literacy and with the dynamics that interrelate them. The main themes include the following: The uses of personal computers and related systems will continue to expand, and their importance to information activities will increase. Both people and organizations will encounter new problems in managing information resources, caused by various kinds of overloads; individuals will be expected to understand and perform many þkinds of thingsþ and to have an understanding of the subject matter underlying many kinds of computer applications. Changes are desirable in approaches to planning. Instead of long-range plans based on detailed forecasts of the future information environment, short-range (2-4 years), incremental, action-oriented plans may be more appropriate. The overloads that make demands on workers' time and skills and the continuing need for lifelong learning by all involved with work with high information content suggest making the source of the problem part of its solution: computers will increasingly be integrated into operations by people and organizations. Computer skills will become a key component of literacy in the future, although the educational system responsible for training in basic literacy remains ill-prepared to incorporate this component. Computers are deployed in schools, but the ratio of computers to students remains small and computers are not yet integrated into curriculum. P-97-3

Jensen, Richard M.
Information War Power: Lessons from Air Power.
[83 pages; September 1997/Research Report]
Much of the appeal of information warfare is that, at its theoretical acme, it could be a powerful force for conducting standoff, bloodless, physically nondestructive operations to achieve dominance over an information-dependent enemy, possibly without firing a shot. How does the United States defend its national information infrastructure against attack? Who, if anyone, should lead a national effort toward information superiority? Does the threat justify the price of defense? How can superiority in information technology be used as an element of national power? This report offers a contextual framework for the development of information policy by comparison to a historically familiar frame of reference. Concepts of information warfare are introduced, followed by a discussion of some issues surrounding the development of air power and strategic bombing doctrine that arose between the World Wars, when, as now, breakthroughs in technology had profound implications for the conduct of national security. ISBN 1-879716-43-7 P-97-2

Capasso, Paul F.
Telecommunications and Information Assurance: America's Achilles' Heel?
[58 pages; March 1997/Research Report]
Cyberspace...Information Warfare...InfoSpace...Net War...Battlespace Dominance...Cyber War... Vast technological changes within the U.S. business complex have opened the doors to new interpretations of the art of warfare. The quest for information dominance has taken on increased meaning as major power brokers try to define how to exist and survive in the reality of an information-based society. To provide effectively for a national level defense against the threat of information warfare, the government must come to terms on who is in charge of emergency telecommunications policy in the event of an attack on the information infrastructure. After looking at where the U.S. has been, where it is today, and after analyzing the effects of previous decisions, this paper describes a framework for thinking about how the United States could organize its efforts to meet the future defense challenges of information warfare. ISBN 1-879716-40-2 P-97-1

Radi, David A.
Intelligence Inside the White House: The Influences of Executive Style and Technology.
[28 pages; March 1997/Incidental Paper]
This paper traces the history of intelligence support to the president of the United States on-site in the Situation Room inside the White House. Its proximity to the president gives the Situation Room substantial power, and its management presents a continuing organizational dilemma that reflects the intragovernmental struggle over formulation of national security policy. The key to the performance of its mission is maintaining a balance between technology and the personalities and skills of the officeholders as well as among the types of information that flow into the watch. Further, becausse the Situation Room must be adaptable to the styles of each president and national security advisor, its role may necessarily be "reinvented" with each administration. ISBN 1-879716-43-7 I-97-3

Bessey, K. Michael.
In Whose Interest? Telecommunications Privatization and Universal Service in Canada.
[29 pages; March 1997/Incidental Paper]
For almost a century, telecommunications services in Canada's prairie provinces were provided by publicly owned enterprises whose mandate included the provision of subsidized, low-cost services on a universal basis. On the basis of research completed prior to September 1996, this paper presents a scenario intended to illustrate the divergent perspectives of stakeholders affected by the proposed privatization of the Manitoba Telephone System. The scenario offers an artful device for exposing recurring themes that underlie social and institutional adaptations to innovation, including financial, legal, market, technological, and political factors. ISBN 1-879716-41-0 I-97-2

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1996.
[January 1997/Seminar]
Since 1980, the seminar has addressed generic questions concerning the evolution of the conception, technologies, and institutional framework of the U.S. intelligence and military communities by examining specifics of that evolution since World War II, drawing analogies wherever possible between the functions and the support systems of the intelligence staff and the command-and-control line in the military world and management information and decisionmaking functions and support systems in the civilian world of business and government. In 1995-96, the debates over the reorganization of U.S. intelligence functions and over "information warfare" provided vehicles for an unusual amount of institutionalized trend-surfing as well as spotlights that illuminated perennial fundamentals. A subtheme was U.S. operations in Bosnia. ISBN 1-879716-39-9 I-97-1

Clapper, James R., Jr.: A Proposed Restructuring of the Intelligence Community
Lowenthal, Mark M.: Congress and the Intelligence Community: Oversight.and Reorganization Plans
Reynolds, Richard T.: The Pitfalls of Peacetime Military Bureaucracy
Ryan, Julie J. C. H.: Information Warfare: A Conceptual Framework
Cebrowski, Arthur K.: Command and Information Systems
McConnell, John M.: The Evolution of Intelligence and the Public Policy Debate on Encryption
Edmonds, Albert J.: Information Systems Support to DOD and Beyond
Libicki, Martin C.: Information War: Ready for Prime Time?
Rosenberg, Robert A.: Defense Science Board Recommendations on Information Architecture for the Battlefield

1996 [go to top]

Spar, Debora L.
Cyberrules: Problems and Prospects for On-Line Commerce.
[33 pages; September 1996/Research Report]
In societies, as in games, rules matter. They set the boundaries of permissible behavior, clarify the terms of interaction, lay groundwork for recognizing victors and punishing losers, and facilitate commercial interactions. Recently, one area of business with few established rules has attracted a tremendous amount of commercial interest and enthusiasm: since the late 1980s, the Internet has been growing at a staggering pace, doubling in size each year, expanding its user base in 1995 at a rate of roughly 10 to 20 percent a month. With managers scrambling to push their businesses on-line, the Net has become the focus of vast media and commercial attention. What is often overlooked in the excitement is the critical importance of rules. Before the Internet can truly attract and support the wide-scale commercial enterprises its adherents foresee, it must first provide businesses with the basic rules of commerce. These should include, eventually, a common conception of property rights, a system for setting and securing the means of electronic exchange, and a mechanism for enforcing both property rights and secure exchanges. ISBN 1-879716-38-0 P-96-6

Jenkins, Will M., Jr.
The DOD's Changing Roles and Missions: Implications for Command and Control.
[118 pages; September 1996/Research Report]
This report looks at recent U.S. military history and, through questions about the changing roles and missions of the military service departments, addresses policy implications for command and control in a broad sense. It reviews background issues from a historical perspective, focusing on six military failures (e.g., Vietnam, the Mayaguez), the reasons for those failures, and the command and control issues raised by Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 (also known as the Goldwater–Nichols Act). It concludes with a discussion of the results of the Gulf War (1991), examined, first, as a general overview of the major successes and failures of land, air, and naval forces and, second, through questions with profound implications for command and control in future wars. ISBN 1-879716-34-8 P-96-5

Ernst, Martin L.
Shaping the Nature of Future Literacy: A Synopsis.
[20 pages; September 1996/Incidental Paper]
This paper is concerned with information, technology, education, and literacy and with the dynamics interrelating these topics—dynamics leading to rapid changes with potentially major influence on educational practices and other important social functions. The first step—and the prerequisite for any further action—is to develop a thorough understanding of what is going on, and why. To that end, this paper briefly reviews and clarifies how these dynamics operate and examines their consequences, emphasizing those related to changes in the nature of literacy and in educational requirements for individuals and nations to survive in the emerging information environment. ISBN 1-879716-37-2 I-96-3

Fan, Xing.
China Telecommunications: Constituencies and Challenges.
[167 pages; August 1996/Research Report]
With the rapid growth of China's national economy, its telecommunications industry has taken off at an unprecedented pace. The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications's (MPT) forty-five-year monopoly appears to have been broken by the emergence of a second national network operator, China Unicom, and further challenged by a rivalry between this ministry and the Ministry of Electronics Industry. The government views telecommunications as a powerful engine for the national economy and a strategic function for command and control and has therefore designated it a long-term development priority. Despite an official ban on foreign equity and management involvement, China is a magnet for international telecoms players. Yet, while new technologies are moving China toward a society with a free flow of information, challenging—even threatening— traditions of political control and regulation, a more open and competitive market environment does not mean a fundamental change in telecoms policy or regulation, nor liberalization or privatization. China's traditional legal framework has had a negative effect on the telecoms industry: (as of April 1996) no codified law is in place to regulate telecommunications uniformly. Lack of a legally powerful mandate creates loopholes that allow telecoms players to bypass MPT regulations; rule of exception has brought inconsistent and fitful approval of new carriers and competing service providers backed by political constituencies outside the MPT. ISBN 879716-36-4 P-96-4

Sato, Yoshihiro.
Non-Fixed and Fixed Networks, Complements or Alternatives? Background Issues.
[64 pages; May 1996/Research Report]
Since around 1990, non-fixed networks have become more and more widely available in the United States and Japan. This paper discusses three background issues—spectrum scarcity and licensing, industry structure, and the advantages and disadvantages of standardization—that must be considered before the question of whether non-fixed networks are alternatives or complements to fixed networks can be addressed. ISBN 1-879716-33-X P-96-3

Longstaff, P. H.
Telecommunications Competition and Universal Service: The Essential Tradeoffs.
[45 pages; May 1996/Research Report]
Can any government really create a world in which (i) communications services are offered on a truly competitive basis and (ii) regulations mandate below-cost prices for some customers, expensive new services, and the scope of each vendor's customer base? Are policymakers fooling themselves and their constituents into believing that they can have it all? This paper examines hard tradeoffs emerging as governments try to open the telecommunications industry to competition while preserving a perceived commitment (real or not) to “universal” access to communication services. The tradeoffs are considered, first, by looking at precedents for government-mandated access channels of communication to bring all appropriate ones to the table, and, next, by examining forces causing the communications sector to change, which must be taken into account for policy formulation. The paper ends with a discussion of several proposals, how they deal with the control-free market dilemma, and calls to increase the scope of government control to include new services and entitlements for access to certain information services. ISBN 1-879716-32-1 P-96-2

Sivan, Yesha Y.
Knowledge Age Standards: Present Scope and Potential Use in Education.
[122 pages; March 1996/Final Report]
This report examines diverse uses of "standards" within and outside education, as well as the interaction between educational and general uses of standards. It discusses the development of a general framework of standards, explores the use of this framework in education, and reflects on the process and outcome of the development and exploratory use of the framework. ISBN 1-879716-31-3 P-96-1

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1995.
[January 1996/Seminar]
As in previous years, issues of command and control, from crisis management, as in the Gulf War or the Six Day War, to long-term planning for information warfare or coalition warfare, were joined to changes in the world (from "bipolar" to "multipolar"), in the defense budget, and in technology. The capabilities and vulnerabilities of the U.S. defense information infrastructure were examined in terms of new technologies (as well as the ancient problem of human error) and the "fit" between intelligence and democracy. ISBN 1-879716-29-1 I-96-2

Brown, Michael L.: Information Warfare and the Revolution in Military Affairs
Owens, William A.: The Three Revolutions in Military Affairs
Baker, R. C. M. (Mark).: The Globalization of Telecommunications
Grant, Arthur V., Jr.: Effective Intelligence and Free Democracy—Is That an Oxymoron?
Cristol, A. Jay.: The Liberty Incident
Lawrence, Robert.: Global Reach Laydown
Edmonds, Albert: Integrated Information Systems for the Warrior
Leide, John A.: Coalition Warfare and Predictive Analysis

Branscomb, Anne W.
Cybercommunities and Cybercommerce: Can We Learn to Cope?
[17 pages; January 1996/Incidental Paper]
The "Networld"—where you are when you are communicating through a computer—is actually a universe of new frontiers where netizens are homesteading and establishing new on-line "cybercommunities" with their own rules or netlaw. The World Wide Web offers the opportunity to develop a true marketplace of information that is one of the more exciting experiments in history—the development of an entirely new way of marketing, bartering, or giving away information. We are forging the infrastructure of an information economy, even though we have not yet untangled ourselves from the strictures of the industrial economy nor adjusted economic thinking to the needs of information economies. Global governance of the Networld will depend on those who reside in the real world but are exploring and learning how to live in the Networld's cybercommunities. ISBN 1-879716-28-3 I-96-1

Ganley, Gladys D.
Unglued Empire: The Soviet Experience with Communications Technologies.
[1996/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Kanuck, Sean P.
"Information Warfare: New Challenges for Public International Law."
Harvard International Law Journal, vol. 37 (Winter 1996), 272-292.

1995 [go to top]

LeGates, John C. B.
The Internet: Is It a Bird? Is It a Plane? Will It Fly?
[14 pages; December 1995/Incidental Paper]
This paper makes a start on the questions “what is the Internet?” and “where is it going?” by addressing another one: “will it fly?” Several forces—anarchy problems such as destructive hackers, a commerce-resistant population, and a shaky financial structure—are pushing it toward collapse. At the same time, new forces—conventional commercial offerings, new and more diverse cyberians, and fee-for-service income—may be setting the stage for explosive growth. New offerings and new denizens are both testing the waters, with no long-term commitment. If they take hold, will the outcome still be the Internet? Might it instead be a cluster of more robust but more limited internets? Or might the Internet become a kind of cyber vacuum cleaner, sucking in other communica-tions media? The paper explores different ways to look at these questions and evaluate what you find. ISBN 1-879716-27-5 I-95-5

Reprinted in Annual Review of Communications: International Engineering Consortium 49 (1996), 773-778.

Mosco, Vincent.
Will Computer Communication End Geography?
[42 pages; September 1995/Research Report]
This study examines developments in transportation and communication that have led to the decline of geography as a factor in industry and government. How have organizations made use of smaller, faster, cheaper, and better computer and communication products and services to eliminate or, at least, reduce the constraints of space and time on their activities? Much like transportation, as computer communication approaches ubiquity, it increasingly lessens the influence of physical geography and expands the choices available to decisionmakers. Computer communication, rather than just attenuating geography, is transforming it by creating new and expanded spatial terrains on which organizations can operate. Taking up lessons that the process of electrification offers for the contemporary spectacle of the information superhighway, the study concludes by examining the factors likely to grow in importance as computer communication shifts from spectacle to become routine. ISBN 1-879716-27-5 Reprinted in Annual Review of Communications: International Engineering Consortium 49 (1996), 779-798. P-95-4

Reprinted in Annual Review of Communications: International Engineering Consortium 49 (1996), 779-798.

Hirokado, Osamu.
Competition in the Financial Industry: Who Can Survive?
[113 pages; June 1995/Research Report]
Many commercial banks regard computers and new communications technologies as critical weapons for market competition and as vehicles for a close relationship with customers. Information technology has supported expansion of capital market instruments and innovative financial products, helping them make inroads into the commercial banking business. Many U.S. commercial banks shifted from wholesale to retail lending, expanding fee and trading business, or entering new areas, such as sales of securities and insurance, in competition with other industries. The industry also continued to consolidate through mergers and acquisitions. To "protect" investors from risky financial assets and protect the interests of individuals or small businesses as users of financial services, regulatory authorities in both the U.S. and Japan have proposed or imposed new rules. Experts, however, insist that regulatory protection of an industry, i.e., limiting free-market competition that provides the best protection for consumers, could well damage the consumers' benefit. The paper contains 4 figures and 52 tables. ISBN 1-879716-26-7 P-95-3

Rothman, John.
Freelance Writings in the High-Tech Age: A Conflict of Interests.
[28 pages; April 1995/Research Report]
Freelance writers contributing articles to newspapers or magazines usually assumed that they retained all rights to subsequent uses of the articles, unless specified otherwise in written contracts. Editors and publishers usually assumed that, unless there were contracts ceding such rights to the authors, they were free to reuse the articles in creating and marketing products derived from or based on the periodicals(s) in which the articles appeared originally. This paper offers a perspective of the periodical industry's past relations with freelancers and the history of the industry's derivative products. It reviews the change brought about by the development of database and related technologies, as well as relevant provisions of the copyright law of 1976 and commentaries on it that may have a bearing on the conflict over freelancers' rights. It analyzes the demands of writers' organizations and speculates about the effects of this conflict of interests on authors, publishers, and the public and about its possible resolution. ISBN 1-879716-25-9 P-95-2

Cushman, John H.
Command and Control of Theater Forces: The Future of Force Projection Operations.
[111 pages; March 1995/Research Report]
On the day Iraq invaded Kuwait, 2 August 1990, President Bush was at Aspen Institute hailing both the end of a divided Europe and the close of the Cold War, but saying nonetheless that "America must possess forces able to respond to threats in whatever corner of the globe they may occur." This paper calls such forces "forces for force projection" and addresses their current status and their future. It says that force projection requires both suitable forces and highly effective command and control, and that such forces can benefit in major ways from exploitation of technology—that of aviation, intelligence, computers and communications, transport and logistics. ISBN 1-879716-24-0 P-95-1

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1994.
[January 1995/Seminar]
Many speakers emphasized new threats to U.S. national security caused by the changing global geopolitical landscape. The promise of emerging technologies in responding to these issues served as a central, underlying theme, while each speaker highlighted concerns forcing not only widespread organizational changes in the U.S. defense establishment but also a significant shift in the conceptual framework of DOD doctrine and the strategy of the National Command Authorities, which drives U.S. national security policy. ISBN 1-879716-23-2 I-95-3

Quinn, Thomas P.: Acquiring C3 Systems for the Department of Defense: Process and Problems
Wallace, Lewis S., Jr.: From the Soviet Union to Russia: Contradictions and Implications
Rothrock, John E.: The Challenge of Leverage in the Post Cold War Era
Leide, John A.: Intelligence Analysis in Coalition Warfare
Hall, Keith R.: Intelligence Needs in the Post Cold War Environment
Davis, James D.: The Role of Army Intelligence in the National Foreign Intelligence Program
Edmonds, Albert J.: C4I Issues
Layman, Richard L.: Survivability and Space-Based Missile Warning Capabilities
Clontz, William R.: C3I Issues from a United Nations Perspective
Reynolds, Richard T.: Formal and Informal C3I Structures in the Desert Storm Air Campaign

LeGates, John C. B.
The Sound, the Fury, and the Significance.
[19 pages; January 1995/Incidental Paper]
This paper examines the publicity surrounding the "information superhighway" and describes who said what when and why. It sheds light on the players, stakes, and motives and on the real nature of the highway. The cable, telephone, and personal computer industries have each had different reasons to promote the belief that the information highway was an economic and social juggernaut. The White House, too, had reasons to jump on the bandwagon. The reality, however, is quite different. So far, there have been mostly nascent services, future product announcements, and trials of impractical benefits in unproved markets. Meanwhile, unheralded, a dynamic "from-the-bottom-up" growth is being driven by current customers and improving technologies. ISBN 1-879716-22-4 I-95-2

Shin, Yun-Sik.
The Present Status and Future Tasks of Telecommunications Policy in Korea.
[9 pages; January 1995/Incidental Paper]
This paper analyzes the progress of the development, present status, and major future tasks of Korean telecommunications. Korea has actively striven to privatize its telecommunications businesses and intensify competition following its rapid development of telecommnications throughout the 1980s. To accelerate this progress, Korea must confront several tasks: promote liberalization in telecommunications industry, construct the national information infrastructure efficiently, prepare for the era of satellite communications, and develop multimedia technologies. ISBN 1-879716-21-6 I-95-1

Libicki, Martin C.
Information Technology Standards: Quest for the Common Byte.
[1995/Book] Boston: Digital Press, Butterworth-Heinemann.

1994 [go to top]

Mosco, Vincent.
Doing It Right with Computer Communication: A Case Study of the United Services Automobile Association.
[31 pages; December 1994/Research Report]
Experience and research suggest that communications and information technology can expand the range of opportunities available to decision-makers. Evidence demonstrates that smaller, faster, cheaper, and better computer communication breeds choice by enabling managers to overcome space and time constraints. For a business firm, this can mean more choices about where to locate, how to structure the company, and how to relate to customers and employees. Nevertheless, applying the technology provides no guarantee that a company or government agency will make the right decisions from its expanding universe of opportunities. The first of a projected series of case studies on information intensive organizations, this report examines a firm that appears to have made the right choices about which technologies to apply and about what to choose from its increased number of opportunities. ISBN 1-879716-20-8 P-94-9

Mines, Christopher W.
Transnational Investments in Mobile Telephone Systems: Toward Global Telephone Companies?
[53 pages; November 1994/Research Report]
This paper examines the emergence during the late 1980s and early 1990s of global telephone companies. Direct investment or operations in foreign countries, well developed in most large industries, is becoming prevalent in telecommunications. In developed countries, overseas investments are initiated primarily to serve large corporate customers with global operations. A main inhibitor to telephone companies' global ambitions is the need to invest in the home region to placate regulators and investors and compete with new suppliers. Mobile telephone systems are one of the large-scale tests of globalization strategies of telephone companies and of telecommunications development policies of national governments. As new systems go on air they will offer lessons about the returns for companies from international investment and for governments from introducing competition and encouraging (or limiting) foreign investment in telecommunications. ISBN 1-879716-17-8 P-94-7

Green, Anthony T.
New Personal Media—Outpacing Society?
[109 pages; November 1994/Incidental Paper]
This paper is a 1993 snapshot of important political, legal, business, economic, and social implications of the design, manufacture, and use of the new personal media, as well as of major issues and questions that stem from these implications. In many areas advances in technology have outpaced both the study of and debate on these implications and issues. Topics covered include the potential of the new personal media to help transform the political process in the U.S.; the effect of their use on government decision-making in times of crisis; their increasing use as evidence in courts of law; their potential to help transform communities, reshape population patterns, and revitalize education, while also contributing to the gap between information “haves” and “have-nots”; the effect of their use on how and where work gets done in government and private industry; and their con-tribution to the preservation of information recorded by their means. ISBN 1-8797-16-19-4 I-94-6

Bodea, Sorin A.
Information Technology and Economic Performance: Is Measuring Productivity Still Useful?
[41 pages; October 1994/Research Report]
Productivity measurements are increasingly used in the 1990s to evaluate business performance, even though twenty years ago Denison and Kendrick realized that they were fraught with difficulty. In the 1990s, however, productivity measures are only marginally relevant, for three reasons. (i) Economists still have not satisfactorily addressed the limitations on measuring output Denison and Kendrick identified. (ii) The concept of productivity was designed to measure the performance of industries and economies that did not experience high rates of technological change, whereas today, owing to the high rate of technological change in information technology, the performance of U.S. companies, economic sectors, and rational economies is evolving rapidly. (iii) Historically, when a new technology is introduced, systems using it overlap with those using the old technology, causing a temporary increase in the cost of doing business, as is the case in the 1990s, when systems based on electronic information technology overlap with those based on paper. ISBN 1-879716-18-6 P-94-8

Libicki, Martin C.
Standards: The Rough Road to the Common Byte.
[46 pages; August 1994/Research Report]
Excellent information technology standards alone are not enough to make the dream of the Information Era come to life. Economics, institutions, and technologies all must be right. Yet standards play a critical, although poorly understood, role, ensuring compatibility when all those trillions of bytes flow among computers and their users. Without standards, intelligent machines cannot be used effectively, equipment cannot interoperate, and information would remain locked in files and archives, largely inaccessible. This paper examines such topics as UNIX, Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), Front Line Manufacturing (CALS), Ada, and ISDN, poses such questions as whether standards are necessary for compatibility, which standards succeed, what directions public policy may take, and concludes that the federal government, among others, needs a better vision of why and where it wants standards. (An expanded version of this report is being published as a book under the title Information Technology Standards: Quest for the Common Byte. See Books.) ISBN 1-879716-15-1 P-94-6

Ernst, Martin L.
Computers and Literacy: Redefining Each Other.
[85 pages; August 1994/Research Report]
This report analyzes the evolution of information formats, using the sequence of generic processes required to define each format studied. The durability of the "tokens" that the processes can operate with and on are shown to be critical to the nature of feasible formats. The flexibility of token manipulation offered by digital electro-optical techniques is key to the features that characterize the emerging computer-based formats. ISBN 1-879716-11-9 P-94-5

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1993.
[August 1994/Seminar]
Much of the 1993 seminar series focused on new demands being placed on the United States and the new world order resulting from dramatic changes in the international geopolitical picture in recent years-the breakup of the former Soviet Union and the continued turbulence in that area, a volatile peace in Southwest Asia following the Persian Gulf War, and new conflicts that threaten global peace and stability. Many speakers emphasized new threats to U.S. national security caused by the changing global geopolitical landscape. ISBN 1-879716-12-7 I-94-5

Horowitz, Barry M.: The Emergence of Data Systems: Cost and Technical Change in Military Systems
Fort, Randall M.: The Role of Intelligence in Economic and Other Crises
O'Shaughnessy, Gary W.: The Structure and Missions of the Air Force Intelligence Command
Stewart, Nina J.: Infrastructure for Security
Jajko, Walter.: Defense Intelligence: Adaptability, Character, and Capability
Sheafer, Edward D.: Naval Intelligence in the Post-Cold War Era
Van Cleave, Michelle K.: Intelligence: The Science and Technology Connection
Tuttle, Jerry O.: The Copernican Pull

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1992.
[August 1994/Seminar]
Much of the 1992 seminar series took place against the backdrop still of the Gulf War and of the fiscal realities forcing organizational changes in the post-Cold War world. Much of the emphasis was on evolving threats to U.S. national security as Congress and the National Command Authorities struggled to redefine America's global geopolitical interests and the organizational changes needed to meet them. ISBN 1-879716-16-x I-94-4

Horton, Frank B. III.: The Unified Command Plan and C3I
Cougill, Roscoe M.: C3 During Desert Shield and Desert Storm
Hearn, James J.: Information System Security
McConnell, John M.: The Role of the Current Intelligence Officer for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Haver, Richard L.: The Process of Reorganization Within the U.S. Intelligence Community
Lubarsky, Albert R.: C3I in Transition
Kerr, Richard J.: The Evolution of the U.S. Intelligence System in the Post-Soviet Era
Macke, Richard C.: C4I for the Warrior

Barth, Gustave.
Cellular Phones: Is There Really Competition?
[59 pages; August 1994/Incidental Paper]
This paper describes the cellular radiotelephone industry in the United States and points out the following phenomena: (i) only modest price decreases occurred over most of the decade, in spite of the competitive scheme implemented by the FCC and of subscriber levels well in excess of expectations; (ii) cellular service provision is controlled by a small number of big operators mainly and increasingly in the hands of traditional telephone companies, although this probably was not the intent of the regulators; (iii) the great geographic fragmentation of the service offering makes satisfying the needs of truly mobile users both difficult and costly; and (iv) the technological evolution of the cellular infrastructure, particularly implementation of digital radio communication with its inherent benefits, is hampered by diverging standards, whose multiplicity handicaps the technological leadership worldwide of the U.S. cellular industry. ISBN 1-879716-13-5 I-94-3

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Telling Ripe from Hype in Multimedia: The Ecstasy and the Agony.
[35 pages; July 1994/Incidental Paper]
This paper provides an overview of the forces and trends at play in the information industries as well as something of the sensation of being on the scene. The good news is that there are clearly visible and powerful forces at play. The bad news is that there are many of them, each going in its own direction and moving at its own speed and under its own power. The whole adds up to a dynamic, foggy, heady, dangerous business with an ethos and feel unlike that of any other—in short "ecstasy and agony." There are comprehensible forces at work—organized business companies, official government branches, and pre-existing market structures—which the author tries to smoke out and describe. But the disorganization of the paper is deliberate: any attempt to reflect the current play of forces and to describe today's information industries that would suggest a clear and orderly structure would ipso facto do those industries and forces an injustice. ISBN 1-879716-14-3 I-94-2

McManus, Thomas E. and John F. McLaughlin.
Competitive Uses of Regulation in the Financial Services Arena.
[83 pages; July 1994/Incidental Paper]
This report gives a preliminary overview of the financial arena in the United States. It provides a summary look at the major players, regulators, and current and emergins issues and focuses particularly on the manner in which competitors may use, or attempt to use, regulatory mechanisms and processes to attain competitive advantage. Unlike the telecommunications industry, where the FCC has regulatory authority over most major competitors at the federal level, financial services regulation is divided among many agencies, each with responsiblity for a particular sector. Sectoral division (and legislated objectives for each regulatory body) tends to make regulators champions each of its own sector, leading to frequent feuding with other industry regulators to protect the interests of the sector being regulated. Regulatory fragmentation means that cross-sectoral competitive conflicts in this industry are more likely to be resolved by courts and Congress than by any regulatory body. Regulatory "rationalization" might make the financial services industry look more like the traditional telecommunications world. ISBN 1-879716-10-0 I-94-1

Longstaff, P. H.
Information Theory As a Basis for Rationalizing Regulation of the Communications Industry.
[44 pages; June 1994/Research Report]
The current regulatory scheme of the communications industry is widely perceived as unfair and unpredictable, and a call for a "level playing field" has been issued from both the White House and the industry. This report proposes a new analytical framework for thinking about regulation in light of the rapid evolution within firms and among industry groups in that sector. It suggests that one route to a more rational and flexible framework would be for the regulatory system to undertake its own evolutionary process, with the goal of a system organized around the "basics." These are the elements of the communication process not affected by winds of change and derived according to information theory and the binary digital computer languages that lead directly to "digitization." Communication could be broken down into senders, receivers, coding, channels, and noise. If, using new technology, regulation were applied to the activities of all persons or firms acting as senders and channels (e.g., speakers, publishers, broadcasters, telcos, cable, etc.), it could be applied more fairly, with increased flexibility and adaptability. The proposed framework neither dictates the outcome of policy debates nor forces policymakers in all jurisdictions to make the same choices. Instead, it creates common ground for political, technological, and economic debates and, at the very least, may help courts and policymakers think about the larger context of their decisions. ISBN 1-879716-08-9 P-94-4

Shimizu, Akira.
Global Telecommunications: Myth or Reality?
[72 pages; June 1994/Research Report]
What do major corporations use their global information networks for and what do they plan for the future? How do they procure their communications capabilities and how might this change as suppliers themselves go global? This study examines half a dozen U.S. and Japanese corporations with major overseas operations in banking, manufacturing, and transportation. It describes the necessities behind global networks. While most companies currently use low-speed communications for voice and file transfer, their networks are in transition. Such companies are already planning a future with high-volume real-time transmission and multimedia. They have actively avoided "one-stop shopping" for communications and have instead pieced together their own networks, favoring land-line links over satellites. These findings suggest that corporate globalization does not automatically create a demand for the global telco, and the study identifies some market realities telcos will face as they expand to address this opportunity. ISBN 1-879716-06-2 P-94-2

Elkmann, Greg S.
Post-Cold War Secrecy Policy.
[172 pages; June 1994/Research Report]
Secrecy, in all its manifestations—classification, export controls, technology transfer restraints, among others—was an important part of national security strategy during the Cold War. Although critical to national security, secrecy was blamed for a loss of economic competitiveness and decreased civil liberties. Since the collapse of the former Soviet Union, many critics question whether the secrecy system can be modified to meet changing national priorities, such as increasing economic competitive-ness, without harm to U.S. national security. This paper takes a broad look at the secrecy system, including various secrecy mechanisms used during the Cold War, their interrelationships and costs and benefits, and considers their relevance to a post-Cold War national strategy. ISBN 1-879716-07-0 P-94-1

Branscomb, Anne W.
Who Owns Information? From Privacy to Public Access.
[1994/Book] New York: Basic Books, Harper Collins.

Maurer, Martha E.
Coalition Command and Control: Key Considerations.
[1994/Book] Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press/Harvard University.

1993 [go to top]

Kist, Joost.
The Role of Print on Paper in the Publishing House of the Future.
[23 pages; December 1993/Incidental Paper]
After almost two decades of talk about the imminent demise of print on paper and a move toward a “paperless society,” in the early 1990s, even though electronic delivery of information has increased, there is no sign of a substantial reduction in the use of print. The publishing houses of the future will need a variety of new capabilities and new skills. As technology advances, they will have to keep fully up to date and will have to provide services that help customers do the same. Many new media and format combinations are coming into use, some rapidly, others more slowly, yet many barriers remain, ranging from economic and technical factors to lack of international standards (especially in Europe). Generally, prospects for the newer electronic media appear excellent, but they also appear far more likely to lead to a seamless extension of paper (folio) text products than to the disappearance of print on paper. I-93-3

Magnan, Richard A.
Software User Interface Compatibility and Copyright after Lotus Development Corporation v. Paperback Software International.
[49 pages; November 1993/Research Report]
This paper examines the complex issue of user interface compatibility involving the user and the similarity, friendliness, and consistency of interfaces. Although identical interfaces are compatible for all users, compatible interfaces need not be identical. Experienced users can readily adapt to some dissimilarities, while novices use only a subset of available functions and thus need compatibility only for those. Recent copyright infringement decisions have held that copyright protection extends beyond the literal source, object, and micro code to the nonliteral structure, sequence, and organization of the user interface. According to the Lotus court, user interface infringement occurs when an interface copies enough of the menu structure to be considered qualitatively or quantitatively substantially similar. Neither the boundary between copyrightable subject matter and noncopyrightable subject matter nor the one between permissible copying and copyright infringement is well defined. Both this difficulty in identifying copyrighted user interface elements and the ease and frequency of viewing them significantly increase the risk of unintentional copyright infringement for those who write or modify software for their employer. ISBN 1-879716-04-6 P-93-4

Mines, Christopher W.
Policy Development for Cellular Telephone Service in the United States and the United Kingdom.
[58 pages; September 1993/Research Report]
This paper analyzes the development of cellular mobile telecommunications as reflected in the relationship between business and government. It characterizes the impacts of the different policymaking styles in the U.S. and the U.K. on the early development of cellular telephony and possible lessons for the 1990s for industry participants and regulators again delving into issues of spectrum availability, licensing, and industry structure. The period covered for the U.S. is roughly 1945 to 1985 and for the U.K., roughly 1980 to 1985, reflecting the later start and quicker implementation of cellular by the British, whose path was illuminated by the history of deliberations and policy choices made earlier in the U.S. ISBN 1879716-01-1 P-93-3

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Information Age Choices: The Ecstasy and the Agony
[29 pages; August 1993/Other]
1993 Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, Integrated Communications for Information Society, Taejun, Korea.

Ganley, Oswald H.
Communications and Information in the Post Cold War Era.
[29 pages; May 1993/Incidental Paper]
This paper surveys the political, economic, and national security changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War and discusses how some of those changes may be affecting the telecommunications and computing industries. The paper includes an extensive bibliography of relevant Program publications. I-93-2

Huang, Derrick C.
Managing the Spectrum: Win, Lose, or Share.
[66 pages; February 1993/Research Report]
Every means of wireless communications requires its own share of spectrum, but, with most frequencies occupied and more potential uses proposed than the unused portions of the radio spectrum can accommodate, the spectrum has become a scarce resource. Spectrum management requires resolution of conflicts between historically determined haves and have nots, and the choice of a particular management system is the result of political compromise. This paper focuses on systems of spectrum management used in the U.S., where the system is based on "public interest," and New Zealand, the first country to base its system on market principles. ISBN 1-879716-00-3 P-93-2

Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control.
Guest Presentations, Spring 1991.
[February 1993/Seminar]
Speakers-all but one drawn from the world of national security-addressed aspects of how organizations gather and use information in order to survive and prosper in a hostile world, a theme heightened by the Gulf War, which was the backdrop for much of the 1991 seminar series. ISBN 1-879716-03-8 I-93-1

Allard, C. Kenneth.: Thinking about Command and Control
McManis, David Y.: Technology, Intelligence, and Command
Cushman, John H.: Desert Shield/Desert Storm and the Future of Force Projection
Lord, Carnes.: Bureaucratic Problems in Formulating National Strategy
Stiles, Charles L.: The U.S. Sinai Support Mission
Ruddy, John M.: Military Use of Satellite Communications
Toma, Joseph S.: C3: A View from Inside the Joint Staff
Andrews, Duane P.: Restructuring the World of C3I
Lotochinski, Eugene B.: Global Communications Capabilities for the Banking Industry
Schwartz, Paul R.: Coalition Command and Control in Desert Shield/Desert Storm

Ernst, Martin L.
Users and Personal Computers: Languages and Literacy, Costs and Benefits.
[42 pages; January 1993/Research Report]
In spite of the advantages computers offer, before benefiting from having a PC, the user must learn the languages of operating systems and applications programs. This paper examines possibilities for learning inherent in using computers, classifying users according to amount and type of external support available and the forms in which user costs must be paid. Although the learning process can made easier and more satisfying, the increase in types of applications requires continuous reevaluation of the costs and benefits of extending the range of use of the computers. Given their growing importance in education and the expression of literacy, the amount of effort a user decides to commit to the learning that extends the use of PCs will be seen not so much as a single business decision but, rather, one to be integrated into decisions about the kind and level of general education each will seek. P-93-1

Branscomb, Anne W.
Nurturing Creativity in a Competitive Global Economy: Intellectual Property and New Technologies. In Martin L. Ernst, ed., Mastering the Changing Information World.

Ernst, Martin L., Ed.
Mastering the Changing Information World.
[1993/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.
New technologies blur old boundaries, fuzzing some and obliterating others. They make ways of thinking about current business and issues obsolete even faster than they make obsolete the products and services these businesses provided. The new technologies are drastically altering the social, economic, and political environments faced by key regulatory and other government bodies, forcing them to reexamine not only their missions and goals but also the effectiveness of alternate mechanisms for carrying out their operations. Both individuals and government or private organizations are faced with a growing need for competent, impartial sources of information about emerging options and for impartial analysis of the implications of favoring or opposing the options they might influence or select. Information is a resource that is needed, in combination with materials and energy, for anything useful or meaningful to happen. All the economic, legal, and political questions that can be asked about materials and energy resources can also be asked, in similar or equivalent form, about information resources. The papers collected in this book (by Martin Ernst, Anthony G. Oettinger, Anne W. Branscomb, Jerome S. Rubin, and Janet Wikler) focus on first principles and how they affect the world of information industries. ISBN 0-89391-989-6

Snyder, Frank M.
Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries.
[1993/Book] Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press.

1992 [go to top]

Weinhaus, Carol, Sandra Makeef, Mark Jamison, Harry Albright, Linda Garbanati, Gordon Calaway, Dan Harris, Mike O'Brien, Fred Hedemark, Peter Copeland, Glen Sims, Suzanne Adams, Jim Sichter, Steve Inman, Ben Harrell, Räiner Thönes, and Kevin Connors.
Who Pays Whom? Cash Flow for Some Support Mechanisms and Potential Modeling of Alternative Telecommunication Policies.
[53 pages; December 1992/Research Report]
In the traditional telecommunications industry, regulatory rules have evolved to promote specific policies embedded in current regulatory cost and price structures. Changes in technology continue to lower the entry barriers for providing new telecommunica-tions services, not only opening the telecommunica-tions market to competition but also bringing in competitors with cost structures that are different from the traditional ones which will affect the industry structure. All the stakeholders—customers, companies, regulators, and legislators—need to determine whether their objectives are best served by letting events run their course or by altering the system. Analysis of individual issues requires asking certain questions: What is the intent of each support mechanism? What is the magnitude of each? Who funds each? What should be changed, and what is the impact of the change? P-92-9

Zimbel, Norman S.
Cooperation Meets Competition: The Impact of Consortia for Precompetitive R&D in the Computer Industry, 1982–92.
[160 pages; December 1992/Research Report]
During the 1980s, stakeholders in the information industry in the U.S., concerned about the human and financial resources required to meet global competition, entered into a variety of cooperative undertakings, including consortia, predominantly for precompetitive research, setting standards, and university-based supercomputer centers. After a chapter on the Japanese experience with consortia for similar purposes, this study examines the evolution of four U.S. precompetitive research consortia for high- performance computing technologies (MCC, SRC, SEMATECH, and U.S. Memories) and addresses the following questions: Is there a significant role for HPC R&D consortia in the U.S. to facilitate a healthy information industry serving global markets? What are the issues and problems related to fulfilling this role? Are these addressed effectively? What has been learned? What benefits can be derived from what has been learned? As part of the analysis, Zimbel develops criteria to answer these questions. He concludes that such consortia are important to keep the industry technologically competitive and that more comprehensive cooperation between government and the semiconductor and computer industries appears inevitable. P-92-10

Huang, Derrick C.
Size, Growth, and Trends of the Information Industries: 1978–1990.
[21 pages; December 1992/Incidental Paper]
This paper is the third of a series, the first two dated 1986 and 1990, that describes the size and growth of the U.S. information industries on the basis of revenue data. The businesses included range from telephony to media to postal service and are loosely grouped into four sectors: (i) telecommunications and computer; (ii) broadcasting and entertainment; (iii) publishing and printing; and (iv) information services. I-92-6

Auluck, V. H.
Computer and Telecommunications Policies of the Government of India.
[122 pages; December 1992/Research Draft]
This paper examines the Indian government's strategy for development of a communications and information infrastructure until 1991. Since Independence, the major players influencing the development of information technology were government agencies, rather than private enterprises, and a direct consequence was adoption of a mixed economy model, with the simultaneous existence of public and private sector industry and a centralized planning system. Industrial and trade policies over forty-four years were extremely restrictive, hindering India's industrial growth and its quest to play a major role in international trade. A distinct change in government industrial policy in 1991 concerned the role of multinational corporations. Companies such as IBM that left India in 1978 have already staged a comeback as joint ventures with major domestic players. Projects oriented toward applications based on information technology have taken root. The public has experienced visible benefits from transaction processing systems, such as the computerized railway reservations system. Attitudes toward telecommuni-cations have changed: once viewed as a symbol of luxury, it is now seen as a potent medium of development and is now being liberalized. The study concludes that as more nongovernmental agencies, including industries, become dominant players in the information technology scene, the role of the government and its agencies is expected to change from prime mover to facilitator.

Ganley, Oswald H.
Rewards and Risks: Communications and Information in the Global Financial Services Industry.
[15 pages; November 1992/PIRP Perspectives]

McLaughlin, John F.
Unequal Access to Information Resources Among Corporations: Causes and Implications
[15 pages; November 1992/Other]
Keynote address, Ninth World Communication Forum, Tokyo.

Rothman, John.
Copyright of Compilations in the Post-Feist Era.
[34 pages; October 1992/Research Report]
Factual compilations have long been major subjects of contention in the copyright arena. Over the years, courts reached different conclusions about the grounds for granting copyright protection to compilations and about the aspects of compilations that may or may not be copyrightable. This paper first briefly recapitulates the facts in the case of Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., Inc. (1991) and reviews the Supreme Court's analysis of the Constitution's copyright clause. Subsequent sections discuss in detail key terms in the Court's opinion in light of the process by which compilations typically are created and the market conditions that affect this process. P-92-8

Weinhaus, Carol, Bill Campbell, Linda Garbanati, Ben Harrell, and Rainer Thönes.
Broadband Capable Network: Voice, Data, Video, and Graphics—Architecture and Modeling Assumptions.
[33 pages; August 1992/Research Report]
The objective of the technology portion of the cost model is to simplify complex network deployment issues and produce usable results. The model allows for network evolution from earlier technologies to new ones, such as analog to digital or copper facilities to fiber optic systems. A significant outcome of the modeling process important to equipment manufacturers and suppliers is the sizing of broadband transport equipment, switches, and fiber cable as a function of the assumed deployment schedule for both residential and business platforms. The project is creating as software a set of data analysis tools (DATs) for modeling broadband deployment as well as other components associated with changing the LEC cost structures. P-92-7

Weinhaus, Carol, Sandra Makeeff, Harry Albright, Gordon Calaway, Fred Hedemark, and Michael S. O'Brien.
Support Mechanisms: Issues and an Example of Potential Problems in the Future.
[28 pages; August 1992/Research Report]
This paper provides background on the evolution of rules to promote specific public policies and provides an example of potential problems arising from continued use of current rules. The DAT and its associated database allow policymakers to model changes in the existing system of support mechanisms and to compare results of various alternatives in order to minimize potential unforeseen negative consequences of those changes. Support mechanisms targeted to customers or companies include: financial assistance to ensure universal service for targeted high-cost areas, low-income households, and off-shore areas; the requirement of nondiscriminatory interconnection to the networks of LECs and IXCs (such as access charges or open network architecture); and oversight of jurisdictional shifts to maintain "reasonable" basic local service rates. The project examines three approaches to a support mechanism—leave it alone and let it run its course; change it to support public policy goals better; or eliminate it—with the aim of bringing potential problems into focus. P-92-6

Weinhaus, Carol, Mark Jamison, Peter Copeland, Dan Harris, and Jim Sichter.
New Wine and Old Wineskins: Modeling Effects of Competition and Expanded Interconnection in the Local Exchange.
[77 pages; August 1992/Research Report]
Like the biblical adage about new wine bursting old wineskins, the new and old in regulation appear on a collision course in many instances. The objectives of regulators and the traditional telephone industry—universal service, reasonable service at reasonable rates, and minimizing disadvantages owing to geography—have been achieved partly by keeping prices for basic service low, averaging prices across both geographic areas and customers, and providing financial support to higher cost areas. Regulation has recently added such objectives as infrastructure development and economic efficiency, but the methods to achieve them collide with some traditionally used. This paper examines some areas of those collisions, such as cost allocation and cost recovery, averaging, and support mechanisms, as a guide to policymakers making informed decisions for the future. P-92-5

Osborne, Tommy T.
Better Telephone Service for the Have Nots: In Whose Interest, by Which Means, and Who Pays?
[57 pages; August 1992/Research Report]
This paper is about where, why, and how to improve telephone service, especially in developing countries. It compares telephone service in selected nations and regional telephone density with those in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe including the former Soviet Union, and Latin America. As principal donors of development funds, sellers of telecommunications goods and services, and the major network users, the developed world has a stake in improving service in telephone-poor nations, yet inequities in distribution and service persist, because decision makers do not believe the benefits of improved service have been proven to exceed those of other infrastructure projects. The paper analyzes various approaches to telecommunications development, including the Maitland Commission Recommendations, and considers both wireless communications as an alternative to fixed networks and the use of military signal sources. P-92-4

Huang, Derrick C.
Up in the Air—New Wireless Communications.
[133 pages; August 1992/Research Report]
Recent developments in radio technology, such as digital encoding schemes and microcellular architecture, enable new wireless communication services, such as personal communications networks, similar to traditional cellular telephony but with more features. The central issue of the new communications is spectrum allocation, and many regulatory issues remain to be resolved. Although the new wireless communications have yet to be established, competition has already emerged—from the private radio, paging, satellite, and computer industries—as well as personal communications services not directly related to wireless. For the cable television business, the new wireless communications appear as one possible entry point into local telephone service. In spite of the optimistic forecasts, however, the market for new wireless communications is still unknown. P-92-3

Bodea, Sorin A.
The Impact of Section 310 of the Communications Act of 1934: Economic and National Security Issues.
[11 pages; August 1992/Incidental Paper]
This paper offers a brief preliminary analysis of economic and political issues raised by restrictions imposed on foreign investment in U.S. common carrier firms using the radio spectrum by Section 310, whose original stated purpose was national security. Bodea suggests that each area identified here requires a full examination, because the increasing perception that the U.S. government unfairly protects the domestic telecommunications market could significantly hurt U.S. companies operating in overseas markets. The U.S. government may want to reevaluate the relevance of the provisions of Section 310 to national security and adjust U.S. policy accordingly. I-92-5

Danner, Carl
"Infrastructure" and the Telephone Network: Defining the Problem.
[16 pages; July 1992/Incidental Paper]
Many participants in recent public policy debates about telecommunications have focused on the "infrastructure," yet there is considerable disagreement about the policy implications of that focus, even among those whose concerns are expressed in similar terms. One possible explanation for the lack of unanimity is that a number of quite different analyses underlie this shared terminology, each with its own assumptions, dynamics, and corresponding policy prescriptions. This paper develops three conceptions of "infrastructure" based on those debates—infrastructure as inventory, the industry as a public good, the industry as a ubiquitous input—highlights the assumptions and hypotheses inherent in each conception, and illustrates some of the resulting policy disagreements. Danner concludes by suggesting some empirical or factual tests to help determine how well each conception—and the conclusions about public policy associated with it—actually fits today's tele-communications industry and its customers. I-92-4

Branscomb, Anne W.
Technical Rips in the Seams of Intellectual Property Law.
[62 pages; April 1992/Research Report]
With the advent of new modes of information processing has come a proliferation of devices through which such information assets can easily be copied, reprocessed, manipulated, or destroyed. Better protection of information assets is a primary goal for developed economies, whereas greater access to information assets is a major goal of developing economies. To illustrate these perspectives, the paper explores some recent developments in intellectual property and privacy law in areas of "fair use," "reverse engineering," "first sale," "moral rights," and "compulsory licensing. This paper identifies a number of issues and institutional environments in which new modes of operation are being explored and new accommodations are being reached, with a new preface bringing recent events and court decisions into the discussion. P-92-2

Okamura, Tsutomu.
Issues Concerning BOCs' Entry into Information Services: Experience in the United States, France, and Japan.
[148 pages; March 1992/Research Report]
This paper examines arguments for and against lifting restrictions imposed by the 1982 Modification of Final Judgment that prohibit BOCs from entering the information services market. Whereas BOCs assert their entry would contribute to the growth and diversification of the information industry, opponents claim that BOCs might discriminate against competitors' access to the local exchange and Customer Proprietary Network Information, or engage in cross-subsidization. It also analyzes the position and potential of electronic yellow pages in the market, examining various videotex and audiotex services such as Viewtron and Talking Yellow Pages in the U.S., French Minitel in France, and CAPTAIN in Japan. A fold-out chart, "Key Issues and Assertions by Stakeholders Concerning BOCs' Entry into Information Services," accompanies the text. P-92-1

Branscomb, Anne W., Benjamin M. Compaine, John H. Cushman, John C. LeGates, John F. McLaughlin, and Anthony G. Oettinger.
Congressional Testimonies, July 1983–April 1990.
[536 pages; February 1992/Incidental Paper]
This publication collects the testimonies presented by staff and other colleagues of the Program between July 1983 and April 1990. Included are eight statements made in six congressional hearings and one in a state public utilities commission hearing. I-92-3

Copyright and Technological Change—Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice; 1984: Civil Liberties and the National Security State—Subcommittee on Courts, Civil Liberties, and the Administration of Justice; Reorganization of the Department of Defense—Investigations Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services; Computers and Intellectual Property—Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property, and the Administration of Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary; The Current Market for Fiber to the Home—Sub-committee on Communications of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation; Information Service Restrictions—Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce; Alternative Regulatory Frameworks for Local Exchange Carriers—En Banc Hearing, California Public Utilities Commission.

Dutta-Roy, Amit.
The State of Brazilian Telecommunications Services.
[18 pages; February 1992/Incidental Paper]
Brazilian telephone services, nationalized in 1966 and now a state monopoly, have deteriorated critically. Until mid-1990 the market for equipment for exchanges was divided into regions with assigned equipment vendors. Although the deterioration has many causes, the primary one was insufficient investment by the company that serviced Rio de Janeiro–Sao Paulo, permitting only inadequate maintenance and replacement of switches. Secondarily, until recently telephone communication was not an important socio-cultural ingredient of Brazilian life. The present democratically elected government which took office in 1990 declared its intention to privatize most such state-owned and -operated services, but many vested interests run counter to privatization. Further, full privatization would require a constitutional amendment. I-92-1

Compaine, Benjamin M.
Information Gaps: Myth or Reality?
[12 pages; January 1992/Incidental Paper]
The rising importance of information technologies is said to threaten ever wider gaps between groups in society. This article considers to what extent the warnings are valid. The author traces the history of the introduction in the U.S. of the telephone, electricity, and other innovations and finds that all have followed the same pattern—access was limited in the early stages. Compaine concludes that there is no need to act precipitously to improve access to information technologies and, in any case, the type of action needed is not at all obvious. As the world's work force becomes wealthier and technology costs decline, the differences in all aspects of living standards will decrease. I-92-2

Coakley, Thomas P.
Command and Control for War and Peace.
[1992/Book] Washington D.C.: National Defense University.

Ganley, Gladys D.
The Exploding Political Power of Personal Media.
[1992/Book] Norwood N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

1991 [go to top]

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Mark Jamison.
Alternative Costing Methods Project: Update on Modeling Process and Key Components of Technology Deployment.
[21 pages; December 1991/Research Report]
In this working paper, the technology portion of the cost model addresses complex deployment issues (following both growth and rehabilitation) and allows for network evolution from earlier to new technologies, such as analog to digital or narrowband to broadband. The paper provides a description of the Alternative Costing Methods Project and its participants and a discussion of key assumptions used for network evolution, including Passive Optical Networks (PONs), SONET, ISDN, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Intelligent Network (IN), and integration of operational support systems. P-91-9

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Mark Jamison.
Alternative Costing Methods Project: Examples of Modeling—Transport and Other Issues.
[60 pages; December 1991/Research Report]
The primary example examined in this working paper is the issue of transport costs, associated with carrying an IXC's traffic to the end user via the LEC's network, and the potential impact of deaveraging these into common and dedicated costs. The magnitude and potential impact of this issue for high- and low-density geographic areas are depicted in 31 graphics. The appendix includes discussions of competitive access provision and the impact of proposed legislation. P-91-8

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1990.
[146 pages; December 1991/Seminar]
Most of the speakers in this year's seminar focused on national intelligence processes and the changes required in those processes by the accelerating collapse of the Soviet Union. I-91-3

Latimer, Thomas K.: The Congressional Intelligence Committees
Lucas, James W.: The Information Needs of Presidents
Wood, C. Norman.: The Policy Aspect of Intelligence
Duberstein, Kenneth M.: The White House Information Process
Cassity, James, Jr.: Restructuring Military Policy to Reflect Worldwide Political Changes
Negus, Gordon: Intelligence in Support of U.S. Foreign Policy
Studeman, W. O.: The Philosophy of Intelligence
Zadarecky II, Joseph T.: The Role of the Air Force in U.S. Counternarcotics Policy

Reynolds, Richard T.
What Fighter Pilots' Mothers Never Told Them About Tactical Command and Control—and Certainly Should Have.
[80 pages; November 1991/Research Report]
Although the U.S. Air Force has been successful in fielding reliable weapons systems, it needs to develop a coherent tactical command and control system to replace the current situation in which each commander responsible for wartime employment of forces uses an individually developed "customized" system. This paper presents a wartime command and control scenario, which includes among its perspectives those of commanders, fighter pilots, ground controllers, and intelligence and operational staff, to explain problems associated with modern employment of air power. On the basis of the scenario, the paper contends that it is the responsibility of senior leadership to bring together the intelligence and communications communities to develop a single integrated responsive command and control network. P-91-7

Ernst, Martin L.
The Personal Computer: Growth Patterns, Limits, and New Frontiers.
[78 pages; October 1991/Research Report]
A major factor in establishing the uses and value of PCs and workstations is the nature of the applications software available to operate on them. This paper examines the ways that PC and workstation software has evolved and improved in functionality over time and the factors that establish limits on the pace of this evolution. It considers the potential for new types of PC software that can be applied in areas of information processing, where computers have had little use in the past. Finally, it suggests some of the likely impacts if such software begins to penetrate the market. P-91-6

Onishi, Ken.
Users' Needs for Systems Integration and Evaluation of Systems Integrators' Capabilities.
[42 pages; October 1991/Incidental Paper]
The integration of two kinds of closely related systems, business systems supporting core competitive strategies and strategic information systems supporting business systems, is necessary today, but firms, particularly in the U.S., need to evaluate systems integrators. Systems integration is a process that involves various stakeholders within a firm—president, management, project team, information systems and user departments, and, particularly key, the project manager, and in some instances outside systems integrators—all of whom need to tackle the task collectively. Steps in the process are illustrated from the experience of several groups, and criteria for evaluating systems integrators are applied to examples representing different classes of providers. I-91-2

Tewlow, Jules S.
Are Newspapers in Trouble? Observations on Some Trends and Developments in the Newspaper Business.
[14 pages; August 1991/Other]

Knauf, Daniel J.
The Family Jewels: Corporate Policy on the Protection of Information Resources.
[174 pages; June 1991/Research Report]
Information resources, especially electronic communications and computer systems, are increasingly valuable parts of the modern corporation. Management therefore faces the increasing challenge to develop effective corporate policies to protect these resources. After first asking, Is any action needed? management must then evaluate its options for effectiveness and costs (both operational and financial). Actual value and vulnerability determinations are key elements in needs assessment. Knauf finds that once management has evaluated these elements, it can select effective protection measures. A checklist of such policy options concludes this report. P-91-5

Crawford, Morris H.
Communications Networks for Finance and Trade in the USSR and Eastern Europe.
[27 pages; June 1991/Incidental Paper]
The Soviets and Eastern Europeans must restructure their telecommunications systems to enter global markets. In the West, changing economics and technology brought a move away from hierarchical structures of national communications toward an intensely competitive, decentralized international industry. In Eastern Europe, officials recognize that modernization requires institutional reform, for example, to allow competition, but, despite advocacy from the Supreme Soviet and the republics, opinions about how to organize for change are divided and resistance to institutional restructuring persists in the Soviet Union. Modernization has been launched in Eastern Europe; Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia are aligning their telecommunications structures and standards with those in the European Community and taking steps toward competition and open access. In Germany, Deutsche Bundespost Telekom (West) is assimilating PTT (East). Even so, the communications gap between East and West is not likely to close within this decade. I-91-1

Travis, Robert A.
The Telecommunications Industry in the U.S. and International Competition: Policy vs. Practice.
[108 pages; May 1991/Research Report]
The question of international competitiveness of the telecommunications equipment manufacturing industry in the U.S. is at the center of a maelstrom of many viewpoints, opinions, political objectives, and contentions. This study, designed to assist decision makers in industry and government sorting out conflicting views, investigates opinions and percep-tions of knowledgeable people in the industry and U.S. government regarding four general competitive issues: 1) What is a U.S. industry? 2) Are telecom-munications equipment manufacturing companies in the U.S. really having difficulty competing internationally? 3) What should the U.S. government be doing about all this? 4) What should industry be doing about all this? P-91-4

Tirman, W. Robert.
The Elephant and the Blind Men: The Phenomenon of HDTV and Its Would-Be Stakeholders.
[183 pages; April 1991/Research Report]
In order for widespread high-definition television (HDTV) to happen, simultaneous changes must be made by HDTV stakeholders in production, trans-mission, and display systems. This paper identifies which stakeholders—TV broadcasters, the cable TV industry, Direct Broadcast Satellite operators, the telecommunications industry, Hollywood studios, and the computer industry—have what it takes to play in the HDTV game. A series of appendices begins with a working understanding of HDTV; later sections deal in more detail with HDTV and its other ramifications such as broadcasting standards, aspect ratios, scanning alternatives, and display technology. The final appendix concludes with an update of the HDTV picture; it reviews the strategic importance of some significant changes in industry and technology during August 1990–January 1991, while this paper was under review. P-91-3

Cushman, John H.
Command and Control of Theater Forces: Issues in the Mideast Coalition Command.
[98 pages; February 1991/Research Report]
Written shortly before the onset of the war in the Persian Gulf, this paper addresses issues of command and control of the multinational forces that assembled in the Gulf and Mideast in response to Iraq's seizure of Kuwait. Cushman examines how that coalition war, should it occur, might be directed in its political/strategic and operational/tactical dimensions. He also raises issues germane to the Mideast force as well as possible future coalitions: How is the political/ strategic guidance of the force to be formulated? What will be the command structure of the force? How will the force be organized for combat? How will it fight? How will its command and control structure be made fully ready for battle? How will the force itself be trained in teamwork? Finally, Cushman considers how a high order of performance can be achieved in a mixed force and offers available options toward that end. P-91-2

Norton, Roy.
Canada's Nationalistic Book Publishing Policy: A Review of Stakeholders' Criticisms, 1985–1990.
[71 pages; February 1991/Research Report]
In July 1985, Canada proclaimed the "Baie Comeau" policy, designed to increase the proportion of Canada's book publishing industry owned by Canadians. This paper briefly reviews events leading up to the birth of "Baie Comeau" and then considers reactions to the policy by Canada (Canadian nationalists embraced it) and the U.S. (the U.S. was shocked by its bias against foreign investment). Finally, it looks at how various industry and world trends and issues could impact the policy in the future. P-91-1

Coakley, Thomas P., Ed.
C3I: Issues of Command and Control.
[1991/Book] Washington, D.C.: National Defense University.

1990 [go to top]

Koike, Naoyuki.
Cable Television and Telephone Companies: Towards Residential Broadband Communications Services in the U.S. and Japan.
[180 pages; December 1990/Research Report]
This paper overviews, analyzes, and discusses current questions and issues concerning residential broadband communications services and their possible effects on communications policies in the U.S. and Japan. The entry of telephone companies into cable television services—the main focus of this paper—is only the first of many battles in the video distribution market-place expected throughout the 1990s. As evidenced in the telco/cable issues, in the battles of the 1990s, a number of long-standing fundamental issues in communications industries (some of which were believed to have been solved already) seem to reappear with a different outlook, with a number of new players, and in a new context. P-90-9

Sonneman, Karin L.
Louisiana v. FCC: Its Implication For the Balance of Power between State and Federal Authorities in Telecommunications Regulation.
[63 pages; October 1990/Research Report]
The FCC's competitive policies in telecommunications regulation and the states' general opposition to those policies precipitated several cases in the late 1970s and early 1980s in which courts of appeals accorded broad preemptive powers to the FCC. The FCC's victories were dulled significantly, however, by the Supreme Court's rejection in 1986 of FCC preemption of state regulation in Louisiana Public Service Commission et al. v. FCC et al. After examining the pre- and post-Louisiana record, Sonneman concludes that Louisiana was a watershed that readjusted the balance of power in the states' favor, or, at the very least, tempered the FCC's propensity to preempt state regulation. P-90-8

Ruess, John C.
Future United States Air Force Strategy in the Third World: C3I Challenges.
[71 pages; September 1990/Research Report]
Many Third World nations are rapidly acquiring military capabilities that will allow their future forces to challenge the U.S in regional conflicts. Focusing on the U.S. Air Force, this report examines evolving strategy options in this changing Third World environment and their implications for C3I. Challenges arise in balancing weapons capabilities, personnel requirements, C3I, and other supporting elements in light of current and projected research and development and budget limitations. P-90-7

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1989.
[132 pages; August 1990/Seminar]
The central theme of the seminar, as in previous years, was the manner in which institutions structure intelligence, command, and control activities to serve as their organizational nervous systems. Each speaker addressed some aspect of how organizations gather and use information in order to survive and prosper in a hostile world. I-90-3

Johnson, Stuart E.: Command and Control Education and Research
Magee, John.: Some Business Analogies to C3I
Myers, John T.: Future Directions for Defense Communications
Zraket, Charles.: Four Vital Issues in C3I
Fox, James M.: Crisis Management at the FBI
McManis, David Y.: National Security and the Democratization of Information
Herres, Robert T.: The Role of the Joint Chiefs after the 1986 Defense Reorganization Act

Sutton, Stephen W.
Unholy Matrimony: The Marriage of Operations and Intelligence in C3I.
[91 pages; August 1990/Incidental Paper]
This study examines various policies—such as the Army and Air Force's AirLand Battle doctrine and the Navy's Maritime Strategy—affecting the U.S. intelligence community and how they can impact the ability of our military to accomplish its operational taskings. I-90-2

Crawford, Morris H.
The Common Market for Telecommunications and Information Services.
[132 pages; July 1990/Research Report]
The Single European Act of 1986 opened a new era of controversy over regulatory policy for administering and operating telecommunications in a reconstituted Common Market. This restructuring process engages an army of officials and private individuals throughout Europe, in member countries, in nonmember countries including the U.S., as well as in Brussels. This paper presents the complex process of defining and achieving common goals in communications and information services: it describes European telecom-munications and EC policy-making, summarizes the state of progress in telecommunications reform, outlines the international reactions, discusses some consequences of the changes in eastern Europe and the USSR, and concludes with some thoughts about the prospects for the 1990s. P-90-6

A portion of Chapter 4, "EC '92 and the International Community," has been extracted and published in French translation as "De nouvelles cooperations?" ("New Cooperations?") in Le Communicateur 12 (Winter 1990), 61-88.

LeGates, John C.
The Strategic Environment and Choices of Local Exchange Telephone Companies.
[5 pages; July 1990/PIRP Perspectives]

McManus, Thomas E.
Telephone Transaction-Generated Information: Rights and Restrictions.
[101 pages; May 1990/Research Report]
Telephone transaction-generated information (TTGI) is the information generated by telephone usage and by transactions related to telephone service. Diverse stakeholders with varied and conflicting stakes in TTGI have a wide range of legal levers that they can bring to bear for ownership of and access to TTGI. Surveying these, McManus finds that the conflicts and related privacy implications are likely to become even more significant in the increasingly competitive telecommunications environment. Accompanying the text, which puts TTGI into a business and legal context, are three wall charts that present the stakes and legal levers of stakeholders in TTGI. P-90-5

Masoner, Jeffrey A.
Alternatives to Rate Base/Rate of Return Regulation of Local Exchange Carriers: An Analysis of Stakeholder Positions.
[May 1990/Research Report]
This paper examines fundamental issues in the regulation of local exchange telecommunications carriers (LECs). What justifies regulation of LECs in the first place? What is new that we should reexamine regulation? What are the major regulatory alternatives? What are their strengths and weak-nesses? How does one evaluate the results of any regulatory structure? These issues are examined from the points of view of major telecommunications stakeholders, including the companies themselves, governments, users, and competitors. P-90-4

This paper is available in two versions:

» Summary version: [9 pages; May 1990/Research Report]
Summary of the findings of the full-length research report. Includes a 25" x 19" fold-out chart, Overview of Positions. P-90-4

» Long version: [356 pages; May 1990/ Research Report]
Formal comments and testimony filed in various state and federal regulatory proceedings are examined in this full-length report. Includes a 25" x 19" fold-out chart, Overview of Positions. P-90-3

Sung, Keuk Je.
Korean Telecommunications Policies into the 1990s.
[71 pages; April 1990/Research Report]
In Korea the Ministry of Communications has proposed new policies for telecommunications development, including postalization of telephone rates (distance-incentive rates) and implementation of universal information service going beyond the French Teletel program. These targets raise difficult questions for both public and private-sector policy- makers: Is postalization of telephone rates sustainable in a competitive environment? What issues are involved in the provision of universal information service? Sung analyzes these questions and relates experience in other countries to social, economic, and technological development in Korea. P-90-2

Huang, Derrick C.
Size and Growth Trends of the Information Industry: 1975–1987.
[23 pages; April 1990/Incidental Paper]
This paper describes the information industry's size and growth from 1975 to 1987 through the collection of revenue data of various businesses. The informa-tion industry is categorized into six groups: compunications (computer + communications), media and entertainment, postal delivery services, business information services, miscellaneous manufacturing, and financial and legal services. The findings are summarized in the figures and tables, which comprise the bulk of the paper. From these data, industry trends are drawn and briefly discussed. This paper updates Benjamin Compaine's Size and Growth Trends of the Information Industry: 1970–1983. I-90-1

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Whence and Whither Intelligence, Command and Control? The Certainty of Uncertainty.
[34 pages; February 1990/Research Report]
The continuing availability of ever smaller, faster, cheaper, and better tools for information processing gives us the illusion that throwing these tools at perennial problems of business or military intelligence, command, and control can solve these problems once and for all. In reality, the new tools keep on triggering readjustments in numerous interlinked balancing acts, like those between the desire to reduce the complexity of tasks and the desire to increase adaptability to changing tasks or between operational security and operational effectiveness. The central theme is how best to enable military commanders—or business executives—to identify and adjust these balances for effectiveness against opponents or competitors with similar problems. P-90-1

Allard, C. Kenneth.
Command, Control, and the Common Defense.
[1990/Book] New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Oettinger, Anthony G.
National Politics and the Telecommunications World
[100 pages; January 1990/Other]
Presented at the National Security Agency, Ft Meade, Maryland on Janary 10, 1990.

1989 [go to top]

Ganley, Oswald H.
Interpreting Changes in the USSR, Eastern Europe, and the European Economic Community: Some Guideposts for Communications and Information Industries.
[7 pages; December 1989/PIRP Perspectives] PS-89-1

Silberberg, Jay L.
Alternative Costing Methods: Fundamentals and Discretion—A Fixed Allocator Separations Model.
[185 pages; November 1989/Research Report]
Cost allocation practices are often changed without adequate understanding of likely effects on revenues, policy intent, or any other stakes. The decision process involved does not flow from data to decision to policy, but more nearly from policy to data to decision to revised data (via rule changes). This is discretion at work. Silberberg's model of one alternative Jurisdictional Separations method—a fixed nation-wide interstate allocator—indicates the impact on various stakeholders and the potential effect on pressures to deaverage interstate toll prices. P-89-6

McLaughlin, John F.
Making Money as a Telphone Company: Risks, Opportunities, and Likely Failures
[6 pages; October 1989/Other]
Prepared for the United States Telephone Association Capital Recovery Seminar.

Branscomb, Anne W.
Rogue Computer Programs—Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Time Bombs: Prank, Prowess, Protection, or Prosecution?
[83 pages; September 1989/Incidental Paper]
In the late 1980s the computer world has awakened to a new threat to its health—an infestation of various maladies which collectively, and sometimes erroneously, have been called "computer viruses." Lawyers, legislators, computer manufacturers, software programmers, and security experts are equally concerned whether or not the people responsible for these various electronic malfunctions can or should be prosecuted under existing statutes. This paper analyzes such incidents as the INTERNET worm, Aldus peace virus, the Pakistani Brain, and the Burleson Revenge. Branscomb looks at the motives of the perpetrators, reviews state and federal statutes, and examines bills pending in Congress and in several state legislatures in mid-1989. I-89-3

Ernst, Martin L.
HDTV Issues: Rallying Cry or Whimper?
[11 pages; May 1989/PIRP Perspectives] PS-89-2

Lee, Dong Wook.
The Challenges for Value-Added Services in Korea.
[155 pages; May 1989/Research Report]
For Korea, where liberalization of an infant value-added services (VAS) industry has only begun, the implications of worldwide changes in information and communications industries are complex. Lee compares developments in the U.S., Japan, Great Britain, and Korea to place into context critical policy issues for Korea: How open an open policy should Korea adopt for VAS and by what steps? With what effects and on whom? Interconnection, intercompany networks, and VAS development are key considerations. P-89-3

LeGates, John C., and John F. McLaughlin.
Forces, Trends, and Glitches in the World of Compunications.
[33 pages; May 1989/Research Report]
The authors look at phenomena underlying regulatory issues in the late 1980s. For example, changes in population density and concentration indicate different regulatory needs among the states. In the wake of the "baby-boom bust"—a borderline crisis in entry-level employment—automation is increasing the productivity of service jobs or automating them out of existence. The authors also survey the changing demographics of political power that affect telephone companies and the effects of changes in information technologies and supply. P-89-2

Ganley, Oswald H.
EC'92 and the Telecommunications/Computer and Information Industries
[23 pages; May 1989/Other]

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1988.
[176 pages; March 1989/Seminar]
Two themes predominated this year among the speakers' topics. One was the reorganization of the U.S. Department of Defense in accordance with the Goldwater-Nichols Reorganization Act of 1986. The second was the role of Special Operations Forces and Low Intensity Conflict (SOF/LIC) in defense planning and organization. I-89-1

Huffstutler, Rae M.: Intelligence Sources and Their Applications
Thornburgh, Richard L.: Three Mile Island: A Case Study in C3I for Crisis Management
Locher, James R. III.: Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict: A Congressional Perspective
Herres, Robert T.: Strengthening the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
McLaughlin, John F.: The Rise in Low Intensity Conflict: A Theory
Tuttle, Jerry O.: Tailoring C3I Systems to Military Users
Lockwood, Earl F.: The Evolution of Special Operations Forces
Kingston, Robert C.: The Special Operations Command: Structure and Responsibilities
Breth, Frank J.: Getting in Front of C4I2 Problems
Davis, Ruth M.: Putting C3I Development in a Strategic and Operational Context

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Jay L. Silberberg.
Telecommunications Industry: Tactical Disputes, Elements of Change, and Strategic Outcomes.
[91 pages; March 1989/Research Draft]
Where do the dollars in various markets come from? How are costs recovered? Is it in the best interest of a company, its competitors, or its regulatory agencies to change any trends? How much of this is under your control? What tactics can support your strategies? The tools in this paper, including 42 charts, help address these and other "what-if" questions that affect strategic goals and outcomes for stakeholders in the telecommunications industry.

McLaughlin, John F.
Marketing Megalomania: The Lure of the Information Business.
[6 pages; February 1989/PIRP Perspectives] PS-89-4

McLaughlin, John F.
"Information Services": Inevitable Policy Controversies and Market Uncertainties.
[3 pages; February 1989/PIRP Perspectives] PS-89-3

Shinoda, Satoshi.
Competition in Local Telecommunications Markets: The U.S. and Japan.
[110 pages; February 1989/Research Draft]
What is local telecommunications service, and who should pay for the costs of the traditional local network? Shinoda examines the difficulties in defining local service boundaries as local competition increases in the U.S. and Japan—and as the importance of the local networks increases as well. He outlines the stakes and stakeholders in emerging multivendor local markets in both countries and describes problems involved in the dismantling of monopolistic rate structures.

Ganley, Oswald H., and Gladys D. Ganley.
To Inform or To Control? The New Communications Networks.
[1989/Book] 2d. Ed. Norwood N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

1988 [go to top]

Kreps, Robert P.
Buying Hens Not Eggs: The Acquisition of Communications and Information Technology by the Peoples' Republic of China.
[121 pages; October 1988/Research Report]
This is the Program's first paper to analyze the Chinese electronics industry and the problems the Chinese have faced in their attempts to absorb Western technology. Kreps examines, as well, the difficulties of Western entrepreneurs who have tried to tap the potentially vast Chinese market for com-munications and information technology. A primary dilemma has emerged for U.S. technology policy toward China: While a more prosperous modern China could be a force for stability in Asia, differences in world view make for a cautious U.S. export control policy. P-88-3

Oettinger, Anthony G.
The Formula Is Everything: Costing and Pricing in the Telecommunications Industry.
[57 pages; October 1988/Research Report]
Folks love to spread the idea that the prices of products or services are tied to the costs of those goods, but it ain't necessarily so. Prices sometimes have little to do with costs. At other times, the two are tightly linked. Which happens when has more to do with politics than with parochial preferences about how the world ought to work. Examples of telecommunciations exchange service costing and pricing policy illustrate the relevance of that theme to today's decision makers. Under station-to-station pricing, for instance, Oettinger shows how the formula was every-thing: where there was demand for relating prices to costs, suitable costs were invented to justify prices. Even today the political process, along with the marketplace, continues the evolution of products, services, costs, and prices. P-88-2

Ganley, Oswald H.
International Communications and Information in the 1990s: Forces and Trends.
[18 pages; August 1988/Incidental Paper]
The most radical changes in communications and information (C&I) during this decade have been in economic dominance, in power groupings, and in infrastructures and institutions. A new global balance is occurring in the midst of political changes and new dependencies on all kinds of new tech-nologies. Adapted from Oswald H. Ganley and Gladys D. Ganley's To Inform Or To Control, second edition (see Books), this short paper out-lines major world-wide C&I trends and forces of note for the 1990s. I-88-3

Crawford, Morris H.
EC '92: The Making of a Common Market in Telecommunications.
[28 pages; July 1988/Incidental Paper]
The European Community is at mid-point in an all-out drive—EC' 92—for full economic integration. EC '92 presents complex and controversial issues and has as a key goal a Common Market in telecom-munications, principally as a means of strengthening high-tech competitiveness. Crawford looks at unresolved questions concerning standards and balance among differing national systems as well as factors affecting the likelihood of liberal or protectionist outcomes. I-88-2

McLaughlin, John F.
The Baby Boom Bust: A Boon for the Information Business?
[4 pages; June 1988/PIRP Perspectives]

Shukunami, Tatsushiro.
The Race for Value-Added Services: Challenges and Opportunities in the U.S., Japan, and the U.K.
[145 pages; May 1988/Research Report]
The markets for enhanced services and value-added networks are expected to grow more rapidly than those for basic services, yet there are fundamental uncertainties in the technological development of hardware and software in terminals and computers, in the development and regulation of advanced common carrier networks, and in evolving customer demand. Shukunami discusses major changes in regulatory frameworks in the U.S., Japan, and the U.K. aimed at securing fair competition and liberalizing value-added service provision and looks at competing views on interconnection. Standardization efforts in the U.S., Japan, U.K., and internationally raise questions about how new national and international regulations and the battles over them can be accommodated by traditional regulatory frameworks. P-88-1

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1987.
[194 pages; May 1988/Seminar]
Speakers explored the information requirements of national, military, and business organizations at a time of technological and organizational change in the military and civilian worlds. The reorganization of the U.S. Department of Defense in accordance with the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 was the occasion for analysis and re-evaluation. I-88-1

Foster, Gregory D.: The National Defense University's Command and Control Program
Zak, Michael J.: Coming of Age in C3I
DeGross, Robert L.: Teaching Intelligence
Lotochinski, Eugene B.: The Information Management Marketplace
Lodge, George C.: Ideology and National Competitiveness
McDaniel, Rodney B.: C3I: A National Security Council Perspective
Demech, Fred R., Jr.: Making Intelligence Better
Locher, James R. III.: Defense Reorganization: A View from the Senate
Barrett, Archie D.: Defense Reorganization: A View from the House

Compaine, Benjamin M.
Issues in New Information Technology.
[1988/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Political Scientific, and Other Truths in the Information World.
[1988/Book] The Samuel Lazerow Memorial Lecture. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh School of Library and Information Science.

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Anthony G. Oettinger.
At the Heart of the Debates: Costs, Control, and Ownership of the Existing Network. Behind the Telephone Debates – 1.
[1988/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Anthony G. Oettinger.
Behind the Telephone Debates.
[1988/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Anthony G. Oettinger.
Concepts: Understanding Debates Over Competition and Divestiture. Behind the Telephone Debates – 2.
[1988/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

1987 [go to top]

McLaughlin, John F.
Using Competing Carriers to Ensure the Survivability of Corporate Information Systems.
[3 pages; November 1987/PIRP Perspectives] PS-87-2

McLaughlin, John F.
Talking Yellow Pages: Some Observations on U.S. Developments.
[6 pages; November 1987/PIRP Perspectives] PS-87-1

Lemler, Mark L.
The FCC Access Charge Plan: The Debates Continue.
[197 pages; October 1987/Research Report]
The Access Charge Plan (ACP) was, and continues to be, the FCC's vehicle for overseeing the transition of the interstate long distance market from a regulated monopoly to a competitive, multisupplier industry. That the implementation of the Plan was to coincide with the divestiture of the Bell system only heightened the confusion and anxiety over the major changes the industry was about to face. Lemler offers a broad perspective on issues underlying the access charge controversies, focusing on prevailing concerns over local loop cost recovery and nondiscriminatory access pricing. Particular attention is given to equal access for 800 service, as that promises to be a major competitive battleground in the late 1980s. In probing the ongoing debates, Lemler describes the influence of economic, regulatory, and political forces on public policy, and how that policy was used in developing access charge guidelines. P-87-8

Sichter, James W.
Profits, Politics, and Capital Formation: The Economics of the Traditional Telephone Industry.
[226 pages; October 1987/Research Report]
The rapid growth of the telecommunications industry in the post-World War II era required enormous capital expenditures. Capital thus has been not only a resource constraint on the growth of the industry but also a key for developing new technologies, yielding declining real prices and increasing productivity. This study explores the capital formation process in the traditional industry, considering both the political and economic context and the specific financial and economic characteristics of the process. Because rate regulation helped shape traditional telephony, Sichter also sets out its legal and economic fundamentals and analyzes its application and importance to the industry. The final chapter attempts to disaggregate the divergent component businesses of the traditional industry, looking at capital investment and at the revenues, costs, and profitability of individual service categories. P-87-7

Yokokura, Takashi.
Emerging Corporate Information Networks: Regulatory and Industrial Policy in Japan.
[81 pages; August 1987/Research Report]
The new industrial framework in place in Japan since April 1985 was designed to promote competition among carriers. At the same time, the formation of intracompany and intercompany information networks and efforts toward interoperability can be seen in the context of traditional long-term Japanese business relationships. Yokokura puts into perspective the emergence of Type 1 and Type 2 firms, both of which can provide telecommunications transport and value-added services, and considers NTT's aggressive corporate strategies to cope with the challenges. He describes governmental telecommunications policy as including both regulatory and supportive measures to balance the conflicting demands of economic efficiency and distributive equity. P-87-6

Aulik, Jaak.
Financial Structures in Competitive Telecommunications: An International Overview.
[212 pages; August 1987/Research Report]
The trend toward service-based national economies that rely on information and telecommunications has fundamentally altered the financial structures of business firms. It has made telecommunications development a "critical vector" for industrial development and has called into question the distribution of telecommunications resources between developed and developing nations around the world. In a highly visual way, this paper explores telephone industry financial structures that are being changed by changes in telecommunications and information processing. It shows the relevance of these structures to competitive telecommunications in the U.S. and goes on to examine their importance in international telecommunications as U.S. policies favoring competition are extended overseas. P-87-2

Kira, Masao.
Where to Put the Smarts: Network or CPE?
[140 pages; July 1987/Research Report]
In view of increased possibilities for locating "the smarts" in the network or customer premises equipment (CPE), Kira's analysis of local loop digitization challenges technologically deterministic assumptions about telecommunications evolution. He explores four major trends shaking regulatory frameworks: First, implementation of partial local loop digitization is possible but remains problematic. Second, the number of alternative equipment and system configurations has increased dramatically. Third, procompetitive policies and the consequent movement toward the elimination of local subsidiza-tion by long distance further complicate current situations. Finally, the increase in international telecommunications usage and the growth of tele-communications equipment trade have brought the discrepancies among regulatory regimes into sharp relief. P-87-5

Linville, Ray P.
Command and Control of Third World Forces: The Transfer of Military Capabilities.
[112 pages; July 1987/Research Report]
The transfer of command and control capabilities to Third World forces has led directly to significant military improvements and created other changes with major policy implications: Supplier-recipient relations have been altered, balances of power in some regions have been affected, tactics and doctrine have been revised, and vulnerability problems have increased. In addition, new policy questions concern the opportunities and risks involved, the objectives being supported, the involvement of the superpowers and other major nations, and even the nature of warfare itself. The transfer of command and control capabilities includes, in addition to hardware, other assistance such as concepts, training, intelligence reports, and communications links. Linville examines impacts on exports, technology absorbtion, indigenous production, and other developments. P-87-4

Ganley, Oswald H.
Trade as a Key Determinant for the Communications and Information Industry.
[5 pages; April 1987/Other]

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1986.
[168 pages; February 1987/Seminar]
The speakers this year addressed a variety of topics, with two predominant themes. The first was the manner in which organizations-military, diplomatic, business-obtain and use intelligence. The second theme was how organizations protect information from the growing threat of electronic interception. I-87-1

McKnight, Clarence E.: C3I Systems at the Joint Level
Conley, Robert.: Data Security in the Information Age
Olmer, Lionel: Intelligence Techniques for the American Business Community
Daniels, Harold.: The Role of the National Security Agency in Command, Control, and Communications
Lowenthal, Mark M.: The Quest for "Good" Intelligence
Levine, Richard.: Data Base Publishing for Business Intelligence
Grimes, John.: Information Technologies and Multinational Corporations
Inman, Bobby R.: Technological Innovation and the Cost of Change

Olek, Gerald J.
Nuclear Arms Control: Why Doesn't It Work?
[121 pages; February 1987/Research Draft]
An analysis of numerous attempts during the last 40 years by the U.S. and the Soviet Union to negotiate nuclear arms control agreements suggests that arms control progress depends on a complex interplay of factors, and only when the most critical of these factors coalesce has progress been possible. Olek analyzes such factors as highest-level participation and commitment, summitry, enhancing security at the lowest risk and cost, tradeoff of force building and modernization vs. arms control, the role of public opinion, the poor condition of U.S.-Soviet relations, and verification as a dominant issue. He finds that the negotiating strategy and tactics of both superpowers are the most visible and most amenable to improvement.

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Mark L. Lemler.
Evaluating Proposals Changing the Carrier Common Line Pool.
[59 pages; January 1987/Research Report]
This paper develops a simulator, or model, of the interstate Carrier Common Line (CCL) pooling process, specifically the recovery of local loop costs. The simulator may be used to evaluate the basic mechanisms of various proposals for changing the CCL pool. Any proposal that gives advantages to one group of companies over another is naturally subject to attack from the companies adversely affected. Indeed, it is precisely a series of compromises and paths of least resistance that led to using the complex Ozark formula for cost recovery. The underlying issues of non-traffic-sensitive cost recovery remain, regardless of the revenue recovery method. The positions and agendas of some stakeholders may change, but the treatment of local loop cost recovery is central. P-87-1

Ganley, Gladys D., and Oswald H. Ganley.
Global Political Fallout: The VCR's First Decade.
[1987/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

1986 [go to top]

Laboy, J. Edward.
Capital Recovery in the Telecommunications Industry: Issues for the '80s.
[104 pages; December 1986/Research Report]
The controversy over capital recovery is surfacing as a visible policy issue in the telecommunications industry. The industry claims that regulatory prescriptions of depreciation rates have been too low, understating past expenses and raising concern that much of the investment in the telephone companies may never be recovered. Accordingly, the companies are seeking substantial revenue increases to catch up, but the regulators don't agree that the problem is so large or so urgent and resist the price increases. Laboy analyzes alternative capital recovery methods, summarizes relevant legislation, and looks at the effects of policy changes both pre- and post-divestiture for ratepayers, regulators, telephone companies, competitors, consumers, and suppliers. P-86-10

McLaughlin, John F., with Anne Louise Antonoff.
Mapping the Information Business.
[83 pages; September 1986/Research Report]
The information business is a complex of companies and government agencies involved in the creation, acquisition, packaging, processing, storage, transmittal, and distribution of information. Updated in this volume, the information business map displays the operating boundaries of players in the industry along product-service and form-substance axes. The map illustrates the corporate and regulatory churning in the information business and highlights areas that invite further attention from financial analysts, public policymakers, and corporate strategists. In 65 maps, McLaughlin applies the mapping technique to illustrate jurisdictional boundaries of regulatory agencies, the strategic positioning of companies, operations and planning within individual organizations, and some basic forces and trends driving changes in the information business. P-86-9

Tygier, Claude.
The Foreign Exchange Market: A Descriptive Study.
[318 pages; August 1986/Research Report]
Tygier analyzes the current state of the foreign exchange market after tracing its rapid evolution over recent decades. From the perspective of the insiders—central bankers, commercial bank traders, and other practitioners—this study describes market participants, how they operate and why, and discusses issues confronting the market: exchange rate volatility, the role of governments and central banks, floating vs. fixed rates, the impact of technological developments and new trading tools, and the interdependence of world markets and economies. In a postscript, Tygier considers the G-5 meeting of September 1985 and the impact of the collapse of oil prices. P-86-8

Compaine, Benjamin M.
New Literacy Indicators.
[36 pages; August 1986/Research Draft]
Late twentieth century notions of "functional literacy" have evolved from what was required in a slower paced, largely rural and agricultural world to that which is needed to cope in an industrial, urban world. An educated—literate—mass workforce became necessary and was at the same time made possible by the mechanization of print. Tracking trends in computer use at home, in the workplace, and in the schools and trends in video and consumer electronics applications may be a way of understanding the nature and rate of development of a new literacy. A survey of the skills required for certain traditional jobs found that while less than 6 percent required any computer-related skills as recently as 1977, 20 percent of jobs required such skills by 1985.

Crawford, Morris H.
Programming the Invisible Hand: The Computerization of Korea and Taiwan.
[138 pages; July 1986/Research Report]
Korea and Taiwan have developed production and trading sectors in the computer industry, but have done less well in recasting legal and regulatory structures for computerization. Restructuring has been too painful for those who would have to alter traditional ways and work in changed environments. But if restructuring is further held up, slower com-puterization and slower growth are likely results. This study attempts to clarify how these concerns might be addressed. It analyzes computerization in the context of the enterprise systems and industrializing policies that have evolved in Korea and Taiwan since World War II and considers the international implications of high technology in East Asia. P-86-7

Compaine, Benjamin M., and John F. McLaughlin.
Management Information: Back to Basics.
[25 pages; July 1986/Research Report]
In this analysis, Compaine and McLaughlin discuss the critical role of flexible, informal intelligence gathering for organizational decision makers. The authors review the development of the information-intensive society and global economy in which managers need information to compete. Bearing on a decisionmaker's preparedness is information not only from inside and outside the organization and from the manager's own knowledge, but also from "unknown-unknowns" which are diminished with longevity in a job. The authors recommend flexibility, frequent reevaluation of a manager's mix of information sources, and recognition of the utility of informal information gathering to supplement formal MIS. P-86-6

Marier, Vincent.
U.S. Communications Policy: A Survey and Database of Executive Orders and Congressional Acts Over 24 Years.
[30 pages; July 1986/Research Report]
The printed introduction to this study briefly analyzes changes in U.S. communications policy, gleaned from a comprehensive collection of policy statements. The second part of the study, on a computer diskette, is a reference file of communications policies made from 1961 to 1984. Executive orders, legislative acts, treaties, and other official documents are cited and summarized, formatted to be searched by topic. Major communications policy statements have appeared historically within policy for emergency preparedness, national security, intelligence, government's role in private industry, fairness and equity, and international relations. P-86-5

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1985.
[189 pages; April 1986/Seminar]
These presentations examined the link between defense organization and the efficacy of command, control, communications, and intelligence, within the context of current debate over reorganization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. I-86-1

Huntington, Samuel P.: Centralization of Authority in Defense Organizations
Faurer, Lincoln.: The Role of Intelligence Within C3I
Stilwell, Richard G.: Structure and Mechanisms for Command and Control
Barrett, Archie.: Politics and the Military—The Climate for Reform
DeLauer, Richard D.: A Consultant's View
Latham, Donald.: A View from Inside OSD
Herres, Robert T.: A CINC's View of Defense Organization
Hilton, Robert.: Roles of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Crisis Management

Cushman, John H.
Command and Control of Theater Forces: The Korea Command and Other Cases.
[604 pages; March 1986/Research Report]
Building on his 1983 work, Command and Control of Theater Forces: Adequacy, General Cushman finds that, notwithstanding recent progress, serious inadequacies continue to exist in the command and control of multiservice/multinational theater forces and in the ways by which these forces' command and control systems are placed into the field. Study of the Korea command and other multiservice/multinational cases reveals that weakening of the chain of U.S. operational command has had grave effect on the readiness and performance of U.S. multiservice forces. The cause of the mismatch of authority and capacity of senior officers in the chain of operational command is the Service-dominated culture of U.S. multiservice operational commands. The final chapters of this study describe options for improve-ment and a matrix for decisionmaking. P-86-2

Green, Anthony T.
U.S–Japan Technology Transfer: Accommodating Different Interests.
[128 pages; March 1986/Research Report]
The U.S. has the major share of the worldwide computer hardware and software market and is considered by most industry observers to be the world's leader in computer software technology. But Japan may become a formidable competitor in the computer industry, due in part to its applications of technology that originated in the U.S. Policymakers in this country face difficult choices among policy proposals that impact U.S. and Japanese national interests. This study examines the impacts of these choices: First, how can a satisfactory balance be achieved in technology transfer policies and actions, and, second, how should U.S. policy respond to Japan's new strength as a competitor in high-technology industries such as computer software development? P-86-1

Compaine, Benjamin M.
Size and Growth Trends of the Information Industry, 1970–1983.
[12 pages; February 1986/Incidental Paper]
This latest edition of "Information Industry Revenues and Expenditures" finds information industry revenues in l983 to be 14.5 percent of the GNP, or 39 percent if legal and financial services are included. Tabulated are revenues in compunications, media and entertainment, postal, financial and legal, and miscellaneous manufacturing and services, as well as government expenditures from information-intensive budgets. A brief analysis and related charts summarize and compare growth from 1975 to 1983, noting the fastest growing components are primarily in electronics, especially cable television. I-86-2

Rowell, William F.
Arms Control Verification: A Guide to Policy Issues for the 1980s.
[1986/Book] Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co.

1985 [go to top]

Inoue, Hiroo.
CATV Policy Development in Japan: Some Comparisons with the U.S.
[45 pages; December 1985/Research Draft]
Today enormous changes are under way in the telecommunications policies of Japan and the U.S. Considering the close relationship between the two countries, reciprocal influence has become sufficient to suggest deliberate coordination. The paper discusses social and cultural traditions that play an important policy role. Through comparision with U.S. policy, it examines several problems of CATV policy in Japan.

Tanase, Masanao
Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN): Concepts and Issues in the U.S. and Japan. Behind the Telephone Debates – 5.
[138 pages; November 1985/Research Report]
The potential for an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) within the next decade is among the most significant recent technological developments affecting society's use of telecommunications and computers today. This paper examines critical issues in the debate over implementation of ISDNs in the U.S. and Japan: Who will control the ISDN? Who will provide ISDN services, and who will pay for them? What are the broader implications of policy choices on technical questions, such as protocol conversion, bit-based tariffs, and the functional allocation between the network and the terminal (CPE)? P-85-12

Davis, Neil W.
Japanese Space Policy: Communications Satellite and Launch Vehicle Technology—Policy Issues.
[83 pages; August 1985/Research Report]
Japan has put more than two dozen satellites into orbit and is now trying to become self-sufficient in launchers. Yet it is still far behind Europe in space development. Private Japanese firms are still evaluating their satellite communication needs. In view of the reversal of Japan's policy prohibiting the purchase of foreign-made satellites, Davis discusses the development of Japan's space program under its policy of becoming self-reliant, and the related issues for U.S.–Japan relations. P-85-10

Krasnow, Erwin G., and Jill Abeshouse Stern.
The New Video Marketplace: A Regulatory Identity Crisis.
[163 pages; July 1985/Research Report]
Today the FCC finds itself in the midst of a regulatory identity crisis precipitated by technological change and by its stated policy of promoting competition in the video marketplace. To assist policymakers, this paper provides a framework for the analysis of the increasingly diverse video marketplace, tracing the FCC's efforts to develop a coherent regulatory approach that accommodates the rapidly changing technology. The paper discusses the issues likely to occupy telecommunications policymakers over the rest of the decade and perhaps beyond and assesses the stakes for the players. An appendix describes the video technologies that are or shortly will be available. P-85-9

Musashi, Takehiko.
Japanese Telecommunications Policy.
[44 pages; July 1985/Research Report]
A deregulatory typhoon is about to blow away Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corp.'s monopoly of the Japanese telecommunications market. The "typhoon" is the Telecommunications Enterprise Bill, which will open the door to industry newcomers. Competition should help industry deal flexibly with technological innovation and shifts in demand. This paper explores the differences between Japanese and U.S. (and French) policy and the reasons for those differences. It outlines the evolution of telecom-munications policy in Japan and discusses key players in the struggle for change. P-85-11

Jelen, George F.
Information Security: An Elusive Goal.
[343 pages; June 1985/Research Report]
Information systems with communications links among computers must be flexible and reliable. But as the utility of these networks increases, their security is threatened, a dilemma felt most forcibly in the military and intelligence communities. This study considers the set of security concerns usually addressed within the system—communications security, or COMSEC, and computer security, or COMPUSEC. Combined with externally applied security controls, these comprise information security, which simultaneously protects one's information and imposes restraints on its prudent use. Jelen examines its history, opposing views of the current condition, risks, interests, and strategies for the future. P-85-8

Epstein, Samuel M.
A Conceptual Framework for Pre- and Post-Divestiture Telecommunications Industry Revenue Requirements. Behind the Telephone Debates – 4.
[188 pages; June 1985/Research Report]
This volume presents four wall charts that detail a conceptual framework for representing pre- and post-divestiture handling of telecommunications industry costs and revenues. the analytical structure provides an integreated view of a sequence of insudtry processes often dealt with in a fragmented fashion, including: jurisdictional cost allocations, pricing of major state and interstate services, revenue requirement recovery, reveue pooling, and distribution of pooled revenues among carriers. The framework serves as a tool for identifying options, evaluating contingencies, and clarifying how established practices are changing to accommodate access charges and Computer Inquiry II in a divested operating environment. P-85-7

Weinhaus, Carol L., and Anthony G. Oettinger.
Federal/State Costing Methods: Who Controls the Dollars. Behind the Telephone Debates – 3.
[188 pages; June 1985/Research Report]
This volume presents four wall charts that detail a conceptual framework for representing pre- and post-divestiture handling of telecommunications industry costs and revenues. The analytical structure provides an integrated view of a sequence of industry processes often dealt with in a fragmented fashion, including: jurisdictional cost allocations, pricing of major state and interstate services, revenue requirement recovery, revenue pooling, and distribution of pooled revenues among carriers. The framework serves as a tool for identifying options, evaluating contingencies, and clarifying how established practices are changing to accommodate access charges and Computer Inquiry II in a divested operating environment. P-85-6

Spero, Joan.
International Trade and the Information Revolution.
[17 pages; April 1985/Incidental Paper]
An analysis originally presented on November 19, 1984, at the Program's seminar series, this talk outlines policy problems and possibilities for international trade as it faces rapidly changing and expanding information technologies. Spero suggests that international trade policy has been increasingly out of step with the changing international information environment, and that the policy void has left inter-national information flows increasingly vulnerable to government-imposed protectionism. I-85-4

Alden, Raymond A.
Coordination Workshop October 18-19, 1984—Report of Proceedings.
[23 pages; April 1985/Incidental Paper]
The Workshop's objective was to find out if those closest to the telecommunications marketplace see serious problems amenable to relief through more or better coordination among suppliers, users, and regulators. This report captures some of the more important comments of the 20 participants, from large suppliers and users of telecommunications services. Key discussions concerned technical standards, end-to-end quality control, an unstable marketplace caused largely by regulatory uncertainties, and the need for reexamination of strategic goals among corporate suppliers and users of telecommunications. I-85-3

Larios, Richard A.
Teleport Concept: A Local Telecommunications Carrier Reality?
[38 pages; March 1985/Research Report]
Those players interested in developing the teleport concept have described it in a number of ways, most commonly as a satellite antenna farm set in a frequency-interference-free area and linked by a fiber optic cable to a metropolitan area. But the teleport's business potential has suggested a more sophisticated concept. Teleports may offer, on a shared basis, products and services aimed at meeting various communications and data processing needs of corporate users. This study reviews the origins and profiles of the teleport concept and its developers, potential users, and regulatory issues. P-85-4

Maher, William F., Jr.
Legal Aspects of State and Federal Regulatory Jurisdiction Over the Telephone Industry: A Survey.
[135 pages; March 1985/Research Report]
The health of the U.S. telephone industry and the quality of the services are inextricably bound to the actions of state and federal regulatory agencies. This paper presents a tutorial on the relative scopes of federal and state jurisdiction. It focuses on a legal analysis of the historical jurisdictional relationships between federal and state regulators, and may there-fore be used as a sourcebook for readers concerned with current issues of telephone regulation. P-85-3

Entman, Robert M.
Issues in Telecommunications Regulation and Competition: Early Policy Perspectives from the States.
[131 pages; March 1985/Research Report]
The divestiture of the Bell operating companies from AT&T has placed state regulators in a new and per-haps expanded world of authority and responsibility. Drawing on a survey of 18 state public utility commissioners, this report identifies the major issues that increased competition and divestiture present to state utility commissions, probes conflicts between federal and state policies, explores areas where state actions may be at odds with some players' views of cost-based pricing, and considers some of the regulatory options. P-85-2

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1984.
[125 pages; February 1985/Seminar]
These presentations explored the roles of communication, information, and warning systems in peacekeeping, crisis management, and economic security. I-85-2

Kertz, Hubert L. with Oettinger, Anthony G.: With AT&T in Iran
Beal, Richard S.: Decision Making, Crisis Management, Information, and Technology
McManis, David Y.: Warning as a Peacekeeping Mechanism
Cherne, Leo.: Television News and the National Interest
Stansberry, James W.: Cost-Effective Rearmament
Rosenberg, Robert A.: Strategic Defense: A Challenge for C3I
Branch, Stuart E.: C3I and Crisis Management
Thompson, W. Scott.: U.S.–U.S.S.R. Information Competition

Mendes, Meredith W.
Privacy and Computer-Based Information Systems.
[108 pages; January 1985/Research Report]
Many of the assumptions made by policymakers about the distinctiveness of various media and the legal categorizations that regulate these media may no longer be applicable to regulate more recently introduced interactive technology. Many of the assumptions that form the foundation for criminal law also seem outdated when applied to misappropriations and misuses of information. This paper attempts to delimit within the broad concept of privacy a smaller zone of information privacy that may require different legal or other forms of protection than in the past because of changes in the way information is gathered, stored, and transmitted. P-85-1

Compaine, Benjamin M.
New Competition and New Media.
[25 pages; January 1985/Incidental Paper]
Originally prepared for presentation to the 6th International Congress of IDATE (Institut Pour le Développement et l'Aménagement des Télécommunications et de l'Économie), this paper looks at the history of new media technologies' entry into the marketplace and at the effects on competition. The so-called new technologies are forcing democratic governments to reevaluate the nature of the limited controls they have imposed on media players. I-85-1

Cushman, John H.
Command and Control of Theater Forces: Adequacy.
[1985/Book] Washington, D.C.: AFCEA International Press.

1984 [go to top]

Richardson, Robert P.
The U.S. Diplomatic Telecommunications System: Its Role in U.S. National Security, War Prevention, and War Termination.
[74 pages; November 1984/Incidental Paper]
This paper examines the Diplomatic Telecommunica-tions System (DTS) of the Department of State: its mission in the context of the U.S. national security and the conduct of foreign affairs; its operational readiness and capability to survive under stress conditions; its strengths and weaknesses; the need for enhancements to reduce or eliminate vulnerabilities; the compliance with presidential directives concerning emergency preparedness of U.S. national telecommunications systems; and the level of national support required for a successful implementation of necessary security enhancements. I-84-4

Bloom, Justin L.
Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) as a Policy Instrument in the Development of Information Technology.
[88 pages; October 1984/Research Report]
This study examines one facet in the emergence of Japan as a world-class innovator and developer of information technology: the part played in this endeavor by the Japanese government's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). To shed light on the political debate in the U.S. over a national industrial policy, Bloom analyzes MITI's develop-ment, structure, and major role in policy formation in Japan. He cautions that the ministry's role reflects the culture and the parliamentary form of government in which it has evolved; a similar organization in the U.S. could not be an exact analog. P-84-6

Compaine, Benjamin M.
Information Technology and Cultural Change: Toward a New Literacy?
[55 pages; September 1984/Research Report]
This paper explores the new literacy concept, why it is of concern, what questions and issues it raises, and where research might be most productive. Literacy has never been a static concept but, rather, has always been a bundle of skills evolving with technology as well as with political, economic, and social systems. The notion of the new literacy suggests thinking through what, if any, are the long-term implications of widespread use of computer-based processes for the creation, manipulation, storage, and transmission of information. P-84-5

Crawford, Morris H.
Information Technology and Industrial Policy in the Third World: A Case Study of Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
[124 pages; August 1984/Research Report]
This study examines the development and commercial use of information technology in three countries in the Third World. An impressive number of developing countries have made remarkable progress in computer communications by linking production and use to industrialization. To understand this process and how it is likely to affect international trade and investment, this study analyzes Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, closely related countries but with different resource bases and at different stages of advancement. The conclusions regarding the domestic effectiveness and the international consequences of industrial policy in these countries should be relevant to the study of other Third World nations. P-84-4

Crawford, Morris H.
Data Communications and Industrial Policy in Southeast Asia: A Summary of Interviews with Nine Government and Industry Leaders in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.
[35 pages; July 1984/Incidental Paper]
With computer communications fast becoming an integral part of industrial progress in Southeast Asia, use of these technologies is growing rapidly in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. This unevaluated summary of interviews with nine government and industry leaders of the three nations probes questions preliminary to a later analysis of these remarkable advances: How are these countries managing the complex process of data communications development? What accounts for their success in comparison to other Third World countries? How are they integrating information technology in industrialization policies? I-84-3

Ganley, Gladys D., and Oswald H. Ganley.
Unexpected War in the Information Age. Communications and Information in the Falklands Conflict.
[135 pages; April 1984/Research Report]
This paper examines communications and information aspects of the ten-week armed conflict in 1982 between Argentina and Great Britain over possession of the Falklands Islands in the South Atlantic. This first naval war since the end of World War II, and the first massive air opposition to a Western fleet since the jet age, foreshadowed possible problems for the U.S. Rapid Deployment Force. The types, mixes, strengths, and weaknesses of electronic weapons; problems encountered with intelligence collection and intelligence failure; methods of command, control, and communications used, the actions of and government controls on the media; and the roles played by the two superpowers in the conflict are discussed. The implications of extensive spread of highly advanced weapons into underdeveloped countries are also examined. P-84-3

Johnson, David M.
Korean Air Lines Incident: U.S. Intelligence Disclosures.
[51 pages; April 1984/Incidental Paper]
In the wake of the Soviet downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in September 1983, the U.S., to make its case for Soviet culpability, disclosed an unprecedented amount of intelligence information. This paper draws solely on materials appearing in the popular press in the days and weeks following the downing of the Korean airliner and summarizes what can be deduced about U.S. intelligence capabilities, Soviet air defenses, the U.S. RC-135 reconnaissance plane, and related topics. A 12-page analysis is followed by about 150 excerpts from press reports concerning the intelligence aspects of this incident. I-84-2

A'Hearn, Francis W.
The Information Arsenal: A C3I Profile.
[162 pages; March 1984/Research Report]
This study profiles, from diverse perspectives, the major problems and policy issues being debated throughout the command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) community. After describing C3I, its history and principal players, A'Hearn examines how the U.S. achieves operable C3I capabilities, how we exercise these capabilities in peacetime, and how we intend to use them in crisis. The conclusion briefly assesses forces that may influence future directions and trends. P-84-2

Compaine, Benjamin M.
Chronology of Telecommunications and Cable Television Regulation in the United States.
[57 pages; January 1984/Research Report]
(Priced as Incidental Paper when ordered with another study in this series.) A chronological and contextual matrix illustrates the evaluation of current telecommunications and cable television regulation. To reflect the concurrent emergence of state and federal involvement in telecommunications and cable regulation, the paper also shows decisions made by state legislatures, state courts, and state regulatory agencies, along with federal court and FCC decisions. P-84-1

Hooper, Richard.
Prestel, Escher, Bach: Changes Within Changes.
[13 pages; January 1984/Incidental Paper]
Based on a Program seminar on October l7, l983, this paper discusses how changes within Prestel, British Telecom's world-leading videotext service, have been mirrored in changes within the British telecommuni-cations landscape. Focusing on Prestel's move away from the initial "common carrier policy," the study looks at turbulence in British telecommunications and the effects of the content-conduit relationship. I-84-1

Compaine, Benjamin M.
Understanding New Media.
[1984/Book] Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co.

1983 [go to top]

Borchardt, Kurt.
Coordinating Domestic Telecommunications Facilities and Services in a Changing Environment: An Overview and Some Suggestions Regarding Negotiating Processes.
[47 pages; October 1983/Research Report]
Negotiating processes for achieving coordinating action for telecommunications facilities and services are likely to bocome more visible asa result of increased competition and a greater variety of offerings. If negotiations fail to achieve needed coordination, greater involvement may result than exited prior to the deregulation of the telecommunications industry. Examples of proposed legislation and regulation indicate that the principal objectives of policy makers, othern than those involves with national security, are to further competition and to achieve antitrust accountability rather than to acheive negotiating processes that result in coordinating agreements. Policy questions are posed for consideration. P-83-10

A'Hearn, Francis W.
Northeast Power Failure and Lyndon B. Johnson: An Interview with Donald F. Hornig, June 30, 1983.
[5 pages; October 1983/Incidental Paper]
At the time of the 1965 Northeast Power Failure, Donald F. Hornig was President Johnson's Special Assistant for Science and Technology and Director of the Office of Science and Technology. In this interview, Hornig discusses how word of the power failure reached him, the President, and other officials, relating this situation to communications in other crises. Hornig describes how critical communications have made use of both commercial cables and military channels. I-83-3

White, Thomas, and Gladys D. Ganley.
The "Death of a Princess" Controversy.
[60 pages; September 1983/Research Report]
The "Death of a Princess" controversy, sparked by an international public television program concerning the execution of a Saudi princess for adultery, is symptomatic of a wider movement whose economic and political significance is just beginning to be appreciated. Because the film appeared to threaten Saudi leadership, the country attempted to use its growing economic power to prevent the film from being aired. This paper describes the Saudi effort, the political maneuvering by democracies that are proponents of free information flow, and protective economic attempts by some businesses and countermeasures and compromises by the broadcast industries. The controversy is treated as representative of the political importance of the spread of information resources. P-83-9

Welsh, Nancy A.
Cost Separations Formulae in Telecommunications: The Development of the "Relative Use" Standard.
[61 pages; September 1983/Research Report]
The technological efficiency of the telecommunications network complicates the process of setting cost-related rates for exchange and interexchange services. The integrated nature of the geographically local facilities makes the jurisdictional separation of their costs, especially for non-traffic-sensitive plant, an economically arbitrary decision, even though it is a significant one. This paper examines why, given the FCC's considerable discretion, the telecommunications industry regulators have never chosen to abandon the cost separations formula, especially in light of increasing competition and the likely development of a system of access charges. The study finds that the debate has changed since 1947; in 1980 the FCC explained that cost allocation cannot ignore policy considerations. P-83-8

Wallace, Peter P.
Military Command Authority: Constitutional, Statutory, and Regulatory Bases.
[90 pages; September 1983/Research Report]
There is no effective unity of command among the Armed Services. Despite congressional enactments following World War II, the Army, Navy, and Air Force have remained essentially separate even in the so-called Unified Commands. While not all problems in the current structure can be cured by statutory change, some can, and there is ample basis to consider change. This paper examines the Constitutional, statutory, and regulatory bases for military command authority in the U.S. From various perspectives of members of the chain of command as well as from three case studies, the paper describes the command structure and discusses implications and options. P-83-7

Knisbacher, Mitchell.
Regulator, Overseer or Advisor? The Role of the Postal Rate Commission Under the Reorganization Act of 1970.
[184 pages; September 1983/Research Draft]
The U.S. Postal Service is the federal government's most extensive and visible civilian operation as well as an essential part of the nation's communications infrastructure. Despite its quasi-commercial status under the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970, USPS, as a provider of a basic public service, has been subjected to government oversight. This study examines the mechanisms created by Congress for public review of postal ratemaking and evaluates their effectiveness. Analyzing the evolution of the relationship between the Postal Service and the Postal Rate Commission, the discussion considers complaints about the current system as well as proposals for change.

Borchardt, Kurt, and John C. LeGates.
The Diverse Effects of Compunications Uses: A Suggested Diagnostic Framework.
[51 pages; August 1983/Research Report]
The purpose of this study is to develop a checklist helpful to managers concerned with the possible effects of compunications on their organizations. These managers may be considering acquiring a compunications facility, contracting for a compunications service, assessing those effects, or deciding on expanded facilities or services. The paper creates a basic diagnostic framework for analyzing information changes and their effects and then develops a detailed diagnostic framework from cases drawn from private and public, civilian and military sectors. Conclusions suggest that changes resulting from organizational use of compunications resources are diverse and that impacts are likely to transcend the original objectives. P-83-6

Lawrence, Stephen H.
Centralization and Decentralization: The Compunications Connection.
[123 pages; July 1983/Incidental Paper]
The equilibrium of forces driving organizational decision making toward a more centralized or decentralized form is constantly changing as the relative strength of the forces varies. Information, and especially compunications, plays an important part in the play of these changing forces. This analysis explains how conscious managerial efforts can be made, taking into account compunications factors, among others, to determine and insure the proper locus of decision making. Two appendices provide a historical overview of compunications and an analysis of the elements of decision making. I-83-2

Baker, Thomas E.
Computers and Political Campaigns: A Look at Technology and Social Change.
[69 pages; June 1983/Research Report]
By changing the nature of the information available to political campaigns, computer technology has helped campaign decision makers change the campaign process. This paper, a case study of technology and social change, analyzes that process and the impact computer technology has had on it. We find that the computer has routinized information management tasks and provides a qualitatively different type of information to campaign decision makers that facilitates a more rational campaign planning process. Beyond this process reorganization, computer applications lend differential benefits, favoring campaigns with the resources to use them and organizations with a long-range perspective. P-83-4

Pepper, Robert.
Competition in Local Distribution: The Cable Television Industry.
[63 pages; May 1983/Research Report]
This paper presents the background of the cable television industry's role in local distribution of information. It identifies public and private policy issues arising from the cable industry's potential as a major provider of local distribution telecommunica-tion services, the competing objectives sought by various stakeholders, and the options available for addressing these questions. P-83-5

Mockos, Robert E.
NATO Tactical Ground C3: Interoperability Is Not Enough.
[47 pages; April 1983/Research Report]
Rationalization, the first component of NATO's policy of rationalization, standardization, and interoperability (RSI), is rarely mentioned in connection with NATO C3 systems or programs. Instead, many NATO officials tend to make the minimum requisite goal of interoperability the ultimate objective of NATO C3 improvement efforts. By examining NATO tactical ground C3 planning and programs, this paper attempts to infuse some practical meaning into rationalization, with particular regard to tactical ground C3. The author analyzes the possibility of two parallel tactical ground C3 efforts: the short-term quest for technical interoperability and the long-term drive for functional interoperability. P-83-3

McGarrity, John.
Implementing Access Charges: Stakeholders and Options.
[140 pages; March 1983/Research Report]
The access charge concept is a natural outgrowth of changing the interexchange compunications market from a monopoly market to a multivendor competitive market. Access charges reflect a need to assure "fair" treatment of competing interexchange carriers by the local telephone company. Although legislative, regulatory, and judicial forums are considering access charges, progress toward a comprehensive system has been and will likely continue to be arduous. This paper traces the evolution of thinking on access charges through statements of stakeholders and illuminates issues likely to be critical in the future. P-83-2

1982 [go to top]

Fleishman, Joel L.
Postal Policy and Public Accountability: Is the 1970 Bargain Coming Unglued?
[124 pages; December 1982/Research Report]
The Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 marked a major change in U.S. postal policy. This paper reviews the effects of this change a decade later. It describes the successes, failures, and problems of postal reorganization as seen by the major political "players." The author concludes with a review of proposed changes in current postal policy and the implications of these proposals. P-82-12

Ganley, Oswald H.
U.S. Trade in Communications and Information vs. General Trade: Is There Really a Difference?
[25 pages; December 1982/Research Report]
The rapid growth of international trade in information has disturbed the established standards and mechan-isms of international trade, both in its own right and by the fundamental structural changes it has brought about in other industries. Are the differences between trade in information and other types of trade great enough to justify calls for a new international legal regime to regulate information exchange? To shed light on this complicated issue, this paper compares trade in information against "ordinary trade," breaking down information trade items into the conduits by which they are transmitted, their content, formats, hardware, and the functions they serve. P-82-11

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1982.
[181 pages; December 1982/Seminar]
This series of C3I sessions emphasized national security issues, exploring policy and planning as well as procurement and implementation perspectives. Guests discussed not only the impact within the defense community of the rapidly expanding technology but also the public consequences-national and international-of intelligence gathering and use. I-82-3

Ellis, Richard H.: Strategic Connectivity
Dickinson, Hillman.: Planning for Defense-Wide Command and Control
McMullen, Thomas H.: A Tactical Commander's View of C3I
Dinneen, Gerald P.: C3 Priorities
Marsh, R. Thomas.: Air Force C3I Systems
Stilwell, Richard G.: Policy and National Command
DeLauer, Richard D.: The View from the Hot Seat
Miller, William G.: Foreign Affairs, Diplomacy, and Intelligence

Knisbacher, Mitchell.
Government Competition with Private Enterprise: Some Thoughts on Pricing the Mails.
[89 pages; November 1982/Research Report]
During the 1980s there will be increasing controversy over the manner in which U.S. Postal Service rates are set, particularly rates for services that face competition from the private sector. Disputes over postal pricing policies may multiply as the Postal Service attempts to introduce new services involving electronically transmitted messages. This paper reviews the postal pricing policies that have evolved during the 1970s and presents an analytical framework structuring future rates for competitive postal services. P-82-9

Crawford, Morris H.
Competition, Cooperation, and Discord in Information Technology Trade.
[87 pages; November 1982/Research Report]
American firms competing in the rapidly expanding international trade in information technology face increasing numbers of effective foreign competitors and growing attempts by foreign governments to limit this trade in favor of their own companies. Crawford analyzes the preconditions and means of these challenges to the dominance of U.S. information technology and outlines the specific policy questions they raise for U.S. companies, the U.S. government, and the general public. P-82-10

Seipp, David John.
English Judicial Recognition of a Right to Privacy.
[133 pages; October 1982/Research Report]
Since 1979, the English courts have invoked an explicit "right to privacy" in decisions involving private property, confidential communication, and personal information. This report traces the development of the English judiciary's role in privacy protection from the 19th century to the present. It also considers proposals for a statutory right to privacy in England and the role of international conventions protecting privacy. The report concludes with an analysis of the "new" right to privacy in England and a comparative look at privacy protection in other English-speaking jurisdictions. P-82-8

Compaine, Benjamin M., Oswald H. Ganley, John C. LeGates, John F. McLaughlin, and Anthony G. Oettinger.
Congressional Testimonies, March 1980–March 1982.
[201 pages; September 1982/Incidental Paper]
This publication collects the testimonies of Program principals before Congress from March 3, 1980, through March 9, 1982. Included are nine statements in five sets of hearings before three committees I-82-2

Media—Subcommittee on General Oversight and Minority Enterprise of the Committee on Small Business; Electronic message service systems—Subcommittee on Postal Personnel and Modernization of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service; Telecommunications and information products and services in international trade—Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce; Competition and deregulation in the telecommunications industry—Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce; Telecommunications Act of 1982 — Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce.

Highsmith, Newell.
A Critique of the War Powers Resolution of 1973 in Light of the Intelligence Accountability Act of 1980.
[103 pages; August 1982/Research Report]
The Constitution provides that even though the President is the Commander in Chief of the armed forces, only Congress may commit the nation's people and resources to war. This paper probes the difficult question of whether we ought to swing the war powers pendulum toward the executive or the legislative branch, especially when decision makers must choose compliance with either the War Powers Resolution or the National Security Act of 1980 in situations involving both military and intelligence forces. The paper ultimately addresses the question of whether a unified legislative scheme setting the balance of power would be desirable or whether the existing, disjointed system provides a degree of executive flexibility that we cannot afford to eliminate. P-82-7

Lavey, Warren G.
Factors Influencing Investment, Costs and Revenues of REA Telephone Companies.
[34 pages; June 1982/Research Report]
This study involves an econometric analysis of 1980 data on 939 telephone companies borrowing from the Rural Electrification Administration (REA). Certain small, rural telephone companies generally serve fewer subscribers and have lower subscriber densities, smaller exchanges, and lower proportions of business subscribers than other telephone companies. Through a multiple regression analysis, this study explores the relationships of these characteristics to the telephone plant investment operating costs and operating revenues of REA telephone companies. P-82-6

Lingl, Herbert F.
Risk Allocation in International Interbank Electronic Funds Transfers: CHIPS & SWIFT.
[44 pages; June 1982/Incidental Paper]
The rapid adoption of international electronic funds transfer systems has left many important legal questions unresolved. This paper determines that no judicial or legislative initiatives have settled the questions of liability for losses occurring during these transfers, leaving systems such as CHIPS and SWIFT to determine their own methods of risk allocation. Neither method is the optimum efficient solution. The author considers a uniform international rule to facilitate this significant new commerce. I-82-1

Friesinger, Gretchen
The Wired World of Anthony Oettinger
[8 pages; June 1982/Other]
Oettinger and his collegues are out to improve the information available about information age and, thus, to reduce the casualties of the post-industrial revolution.

Ferguson, Tom.
Private Locks, Public Keys and State Secrets: New Problems in Guarding Information with Cryptography.
[99 pages; April 1982/Research Report]
There are an increasing number of new cryptographic systems, which could affect both national security and commercial enterprise. This paper explores some new and difficult questions being raised by work on these new schemes: Is the right of unrestricted inquiry into cryptography worth the potential national security losses? Or could national security be threatened if new developments in cryptography are kept from the private sector? The reasons behind the new demand for private sector cryptography are examined. Then, the current research in this area is detailed and the existing and future market for cryptographic products outlined. Finally, the paper explores three possible directions for government in the future. P-82-5

Ginsburg, Douglas.
Interstate Banking.
[457 pages; April 1982/Research Report]
Commercial banks are unique among major American industries in that they generally may not operate directly in more than one state, even if they already do so indirectly. This study inquires into what is “the business of banking” under this regime: what is a “bank” and what is a “branch.” After examining the current legal position and the current business reality, it analyzes the rationale for and the functioning of both the current regime and of various extents and means of broader direct geographical reach. The study also weighs the costs and benefits of the alternatives for consumer and producer interests on such scales as equity, supervision of bank soundness, concentration of resources, political practicality, and others. P-82-4

Martin, Richard.
Stopping the Unthinkable: C3I Dimensions of Terminating a "Limited" Nuclear War.
[46 pages; April 1982/Research Report]
This analysis does not aim to resolve the problems posed by trying to terminate a nuclear war. Rather, it suggests what some of those problems are, especially in the C3I arena, the complexity of those problems, and the difficulty in finding solutions. Throughout the discussion C3I is analyzed both from a systemic level and from the perspective of the individual components of command, control, communications, and intelligence. This study examines a number of operational, economic, and political considerations involved in developing a C3I war-terminating capability. P-82-3

LeGates, John C.
Telecommunications Costs and Prices in the United States: An Overview.
[27 pages; March 1982/Research Report]
This paper, based on testimony to the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce on May 21, 1981, provides an overview of the Program's work on stakes, forces, and issues in the compunications business. It examines the long distance, local, and customer premises equipment markets. For each of these markets, this overview describes the basic market structure, regulatory conflict, and the major political issues. The paper concludes with a summary of findings from the present and questions for the future. P-82-2

Epperson, G. Michael.
Implications for the "Compunications" Industries of Proposed Amendments to the Webb-Pomerene Act.
[74 pages; February 1982/Research Report]
This paper evaluates a means of promoting export trade—proposed Amendments of the Webb–Pomerene Act—which provides an exemption from the antitrust laws for certain export trading activities. The evaluation proceeds from a dual perspective: the applicability, in the abstract, of the new law to a sector of our economy, specifically the "compunications" indus-tries, and the perceptions of that sector concerning the usefulness of the proposed amendments to it. Epper-son concludes that the positive implications of the amendments may be much greater than they are per-ceived to be by the "compunications" industries. P-82-1

1981 [go to top]

McLaughlin, John F., with Anne E. Birinyi, David Dominik, and Eddie Munoz-Perou.
Telephone–Letter Mail Competition: A First Look.
[118 pages; December 1981/Research Report]
Since the introduction of the telegraph and later the telephone, speculation has continued as to the eventual impact of telecommunications on traditional postal services. This study provides a detailed review of telephone and letter mail use and pricing between 1950 and 1977, with special emphasis on the 1970s. Summary data for 1978 and 1979 are presented in the appendices. The report's 56 figures, extensive tables, appendices, and references to other current publications make it a useful reference for those interested in either the telephone or the postal systems. P-81-9

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1981.
[214 pages; December 1981/Seminar]
The presentations in the first volume of this series (Spring 1980, I-80-6) described C3I principally from the perspective of national-level policymaking in the executive branch. In this volume, the perspective is broadened to encompass the Congress, combatant commands, defense contractors, and technological innovators. As part of our ongoing open forum on C3I, we brought together the intersecting vantage points of industrial suppliers and innovators, government funders and decision makers, and principals in military intelligence. I-81-9

Osborne, James M.: Meeting Military Needs for Intelligence Systems
Baker, William O.: The Convergence of C3I Techniques and Technology
DeLauer, Richard D.: A Major Contractor's View of C3I
Cushman, John H.: C3I and the Commander: Responsibility and Accountability
Snodgrass, Charles W.: Funding C3I
Richardson, David C.: The Uses of Intelligence
Rose, Charles.: Congress and C3I
Inman, Bobby R.: Issues in Intelligence

Paschall, Lee M.
Network Management Policy.
[35 pages; November 1981/Research Report]
This paper examines the questions and problems that have emerged during the debate about compunications network management and identifies the issues when opposing views or uncertainty confront the supplier, user, and policymaker with difficult choices. The paper originated in an April 1981 workshop on net-work management at the Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy. It attempts to shed additional light on the complex relationships between facility networks and service networks. P-81-8

Urban, Christine D.
Factors Influencing Media Consumption: A Survey of the Literature.
[September 1981/Research Report]
Included in Benjamin M. Compaine, ed., Understanding New Media. P-81-5

Oettinger, Anthony G., with Carol L. Weinhaus.
Players, Stakes, and Politics of Regulated Competition in the Compunications Infrastructure of the Information Industry. (Part 1)
[139 pages; August 1981/Research Report]
Pricing and costing practices are, and will remain, at the heart of controversies over the nature and extent of competition among information industries based on compunications technologies. These practices are matters of politics and policy neither governed by market forces alone nor intelligible in terms of purely economic theories. This paper analyzes pricing and costing practices principally in terms of shifting balances among diverse customers and suppliers. These shifts appear as conflicting pressures for competition and for other methods of costing of local telecommunications services. P-81-7

Ganley, Oswald H.
International Communications and Information: The Need to Take It Seriously.
[55 pages; August 1981/Incidental Paper]
This publication contains congressional testimony on H.R. 1957 and the International Communications Reorganization Act of 1981. Today the U.S. still enjoys a major comparative advantage in the communications and information areas and still has the opportunity, if quickly seized, to correct its weaknesses. But we are entering an era in which many countries understand the stakes involved and are aggressively jockeying for position. The U.S. now has the option to interest itself in communications and information resources across the board. If it chooses, it can provide the leadership necessary for the orderly progression of this new economic sector. If the U.S. declines this leadership, the world will not wait. The option will merely pass to other, possibly less benign, global forces. I-81-8

Epperson, G. Michael.
Contracts for Transnational Information Services: Securing Equivalency of Data Protection.
[21 pages; August 1981/Incidental Paper]
A number of European states are concerned that personal data protected against unauthorized use in one state may receive less or different protection on entering a second state, because this could potentially circumvent the public policy of the sending state. Several states have, therefore, included provisions in their data protection laws that restrict the export of data to places where they fear privacy infractions. This concern has raised the question of equivalency among different laws, a matter especially important to the U.S., since many European nations perceive that U.S. data protection is significantly weaker than that of Europe. This paper examines possible solutions to the problem of nonequivalence of national data protection laws, analyzing two approaches to functional equivalency—by contractual law and by choice of law. I-81-7

Povich, E. Laurence.
Federal Communications Commission Common Carrier Policy Approaches to Selective Market Entry and Alternative Pipelines.
[119 pages; July 1981/Research Report]
Both the House and the Senate have considered new laws to govern the telecommunications industry. New regulatory jurisdictions and functions for the Federal Communications Commission will be designed to encourage competitive intiatives, regulate monopolistic segments, and stimulate technological innovations and market entry. The purpose of this paper is to explain and examine links among often obscude regulatory decisions. The new regulatory battle will focus on interconnecting the varied public and private networks and on the charges that users and suppliers will find if they achieve success. P-81-6

Godbey, Robert C.
A Distance-Insensitive Uniform National Telephone Rate Structure: A Speculative Exercise in Federalism.
[83 pages; July 1981/Research Report]
What would establishing a uniform distance-insensitive national telephone rate ("postalization") entail? The Communications Act of 1934, the tradition of separations and settlements, and the current regula-tory commitment to fostering competition present barriers to postalization. However, such factors as changing consumer perception of "local" calling area and evolving technologies may favor postalization. Three approaches to postalization are considered: a nation-wide rate system with compulsory state enforcement; federal preemption of all telephone regulations, implying elimination of state regulatory boards; and finally, a uniform national minimum rate, set by the FCC or a federal-state board, giving the states the option to establish higher rates. P-81-4

Cherniavsky, Barry.
Early Warning Systems and the American Peacekeeping Mission: The Case of the Sinai II Agreement Between Egypt and Israel.
[47 pages; July 1981/Incidental Paper]
This paper examines the role played in the 1975 Sinai II Agreement between Egypt and Israel by the American Sinai Field Mission staff and by the use of advanced communications systems for early warning purposes. The main points of the Agreement, the political and military objectives of the strategic and tactical early warning systems, the unwritten reasons for the American presence, and the attitudes of the Egyptians, the Israelis, and the Americans toward these peacekeeping activities are set forth. The political process by which the Agreement and the appended American proposal came to be accepted by the various parties is discussed, the technical equipment used is described, and the results of the mission examined. I-81-6

Ganley, Oswald H.
The International Communications and Information Arena: A Research Plan.
[24 pages; July 1981/Research Draft]
Rapid developments in communications and information are playing a major role in shaping global economic, political, social, military, and other security affairs. This influence is likely to increase in the near future. Fundamental changes are occurring worldwide, largely as a result of the application of new electronic technologies. A broad understanding of these changes is essential for considering international behavior by the world's industries, businesses, and governments. That international policy of some sort will be made soon in some areas concerning computers, communications ("compunications"), and information is without question. But a framework on which to base informed international communications and information policy is lacking. The aim of research in this arena is to erect such a framework.

Ongstad, Per.
Information Resources Policy Viewed by an Outskirter.
[53 pages; June 1981/Incidental Paper]
This paper is a medley of four essays on U.S. informa-tion resources policy, viewing it from its "outskirts." The first essay extends an earlier published framework for media description. Content, process, and display are defined and described by their elements, characteristics, and types. The second essay examines how emerging Western disparities on information policy issues involving "free flow" stem from basic differences in political attitudes. Organization theory explains how transborder communications—originated mainly in nongeographic organizations—may influence nation states. The third essay contends that freedom of expression demands that no force dominate control of content. The final essay looks at the newspaper as a mass-produced tool for individualized information transfer. I-81-5

Rosenbloom, Richard S.
The Continuing Revolution in Communications Technology: Implications for the Broadcasting Business.
[30 pages; June 1981/Incidental Paper]
Will the day soon come when the broadcasting transmitter and its tall tower are found only in the Smithsonian Institute? These two artifacts—the transmitter and the tower—are central to the very concept of broadcasting. Yet they are being challenged by other communications technologies, such as cable, video discs and cassettes, lightweight personal stereo audio cassette players, and digital records. No single technology can be identified now as likely to produce sweeping change. The continuing broad advance of information technology, however, is generating an array of new products and services that could transform major industries. I-81-4

Friedenberg, Ellen S.
Judicial Requirements for the Apportionment of Joint Costs.
[62 pages; June 1981/Incidental Paper]
Economic regulation of utility rates seeks to ensure properly priced service while preventing monopoly profits. Although the purpose seems simple, the practice is not, because utilities often incur costs attributable to more than one service. Friedenberg examines Supreme Court opinions dealing with joint cost problems in the railroad and telephone industries, showing how ratemaking becomes a subjective exercise in policy, dependent on the many arbitrary methods of defining cost. Cases are sparse, and the Court's analyses seem flawed in light of current economic theories, but the examination helps explain why courts may be reluctant to become embroiled in future costing controversies, even though increased competition in the telecommunications industry increases the likelihood of litigation over cost-allocation issues. I-81-3

Owen, Bruce M., and Robert D. Willig.
Economics and Postal Pricing Policy.
[36 pages; January 1981/Research Report]
The appropriate pricing policy for the U.S. Postal Service is a subject of considerable current debate. The problems of postal pricing are especially difficult and important in today's context of rising postal costs, controversy over public subsidies of some mail classes and of rural post offices, the entry or potential entry of competing private firms, and technological advances affecting the production of both postal services and potential substitute services. This paper explores the application of welfare economic theory to some aspects of these problems. After reviewing principles and examining present postal pricing patterns, Owen and Willig suggest specific changes in pricing methods. P-81-2

Allard, C. Kenneth, George N. Curuby, Kenneth Freeman, Newell Highsmith, Thomas Leney, Marc Dean Millot, David McGaffey.
Student Papers, Spring 1980.
[273 pages; January 1981/Incidental Paper]
The presentations and discussions in these volumes (Guest and Student 1980) explore relationships among three key aspects of private and public management: (1) the strategic goals of organizations; (2) the processes that decision makers use both to learn about the "outside world" (intelligence) and also to run and monitor their own organizations (command and control); (3) the technical means for carrying out intelligence, command, and control processes in support of the formulation and pursuit of strategic goals. Although national and international security affairs provide most of the illustrations, with one example drawn from the oil industry, the generic insights offered here should prove useful for managing the survival and success of any organization. I-81-1

1980 [go to top]

Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence
Guest Presentations, Spring 1980.
[183 pages; December 1980/Seminar] I-80-6

Odom, William.: C3I and Telecommunications at the Policy Level
Tate, Raymond.: Worldwide C3I and Telecommunications
Rosenberg, Robert A.: The Influence of Policy Making on C3I
Paschall, Lee M.: C3I and the National Military Command System
Wolgast, A. K.: Oil Crisis Management
Colby, William E.: The Developing Perspective of Intelligence
Inman, Bobby R.: Managing Intelligence for Effective Use
Olmer, Lionel.: Watchdogging Intelligence

Oettinger, Anthony G., and Kurt Borchardt, with Carol L. Weinhaus.
Stakes in Telecommunications Costs and Prices (Part 2).
[145 pages; November 1980/Research Report]
This paper describes both traditional and emerging telecommunications players and their stakes with emphasis on the traditional, who still hold the high ground. Also sketched are traditional services and facilities, prevalent labor and capital structures, and regulatory jurisdictions and price/cost relationships. Differing segments of supplier industries have differing stakes, as do different types of consumers. State-by-state data show great heterogeneity, pointing to a high likelihood of differing state attitudes toward deviations from the status quo, hence to continuing local and state roles in the face of pressures toward federal preemption. P-80-6

Roth, Michael, and Philip Sunshine.
Administrative Procedural Policy: Rulemaking or Adjudication in Dealing with Technology?
[37 pages; November 1980/Incidental Paper]
Administrative agencies have two methods for formulating and developing policy: rulemaking and case-by-case adjudication. In the highly dynamic and technologically complex area of computers, the choice of method can have a critical impact on the resulting substantive policy. In this paper Roth and Sunshine describe eight attempts by administrative bodies to deal with issues posed by computer technology. They evaluate the associated choices in terms of administra-tive law in such areas as: compunications, patents, banking, labor, taxation, and securities. I-80-3

Oettinger, Anthony G., with Carol L. Weinhaus.
The Traditional State Side of Telecommunications Cost Allocations (Part 4).
[177 pages; September 1980/Research Report]
Over the last decade, the federal share of costs in the telecommunications industry (hence the share of total revenues from interstate customers) has risen sharply, thus lowering the relative share of state customers. Such broad trends, however, tell only part of the story. This report examines significant state-by-state, service-by-service, and industry-segment-by-industry-segment differentials reflecting the influence on cost allocation and price setting of the diverse compromises politically feasible in different jurisdictions under changing competitive conditions. The study traces local pricing changes and service issues over the past decade, relating these to current competitive pressures. P-80-7

LeGates, John C.
Changes in the Information Industries: Their Strategic Implications For Newspapers
[20 pages; September 1980/Incidental Paper]
A presentation to the Board of Directors of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, September 11, 1980 I-80-5

Borchardt, Kurt, Benjamin M. Compaine, John C. LeGates, John F. McLaughlin, and Anthony G. Oettinger.
Congressional Testimonies, 1979–1980.
[33 pages; August 1980/Incidental Paper]
This publication collects the testimonies of Program principals before Congress primarily on Amendments to the Communications Act of 1934. Included are eight statements in four sets of hearings before two committees. I-80-2

The Communications Act of 1979—Subcommittee on Communications of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives; Amendments to the Communications Act of 1934—Subcommittee on Communications of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate; Prohibited Renewal Considerations and Cross Ownership Restriction—Subcommittee on Communications of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives.

Program on Information Resources Policy
Report of the Program on Information Resources Policy, July 1978 - June1980
[40 pages; June 1980/Report] R-80-1

Ganley, Oswald H.
The United States–Canadian Communications and Information Resources Relationship and Its Possible Significance for Worldwide Diplomacy.
[98 pages; March 1980/Research Report]
This paper examines the major communications and information resources issues between the U.S. and Canada and relates them to U.S. stakes in such problems around the world. Specific issues examined are computer–communications (compunications), transborder data flow, the publishing industry and taxation on advertising, TV broadcasting, especially the border broadcasting problem, radio broadcasting by land mobile units, satellite communications, including spectrum allocation and direct broadcasting TV, and questions regarding economic rivalry in high-technology industries. The paper shows that while U.S.–Canadian communications and information issues may differ from other countries in specifics, none is unique to the relationships between these two countries alone. P-80-2

Klie, Robert H.
Compunications Network Management.
[72 pages; February 1980/Research Report]
How growing competition will influence the effectiveness and efficiency of compunications facilities or services is a controversial matter of importance to both clients and suppliers of these facilities or services. Network management is one focus of controversy. According to one extreme position, only AT&T's leadership and dominance can do it right; at the other extreme, the invisible hand in an unfettered competitive market can do it better. This paper addresses questions basic to policy formulation—manage what, and why?—better understanding of which can shed some light on the other key questions of how and how much to manage. An appendix by Lee Paschall gives vivid examples drawn from his operational experiences in managing military satellites. P-80-4

Oettinger, Anthony G., with Carol L. Weinhaus.
The Federal Side of Traditional Telecommunications Cost Allocations (Part 3).
[107 pages; January 1980/Research Report]
Central to domestic and international debates on telecommunications industry structure are questions of "proper costs" and their relationships to prices and to other benefits and burdens. This paper deals primarily with the first stage of cost allocation in the traditional telecommunications industry. Explicit jurisdictional separations have allocated costs—hence revenue requirements—among the federal and state jurisdictions. In the second stage of cost allocation, pricing rather than costing policy has determined the further incidence of benefits and burdens. In addition to examining broad trends in cost allocation methods and price-setting factors, the study clarifies how jurisdictional interests, diverse consumer and supplier stakes, and changing technological possibilities influence cost allocation. P-80-1

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Information Resources: Knowledge and Power in the 21st Century.
[8 pages; January 1980/Incidental Paper]
This paper develops the proposition that every society is an information society and every organization an information organization. Hence information is a basic resource like materials and energy. Asking key questions—"Who has a resource? Who wants it? How can you get it?" and "What are the terms of trade?"—links any resource to political or economic power. The abundant and versatile results of our unprecedented engineering mastery over the microscopic information processes has rendered inadequate any traditional answers to these questions. In contrast, the evolution and import of new answers appear in the consequences of competition within and between the computer and telecommunications industries as well as in domestic and international struggles over freedom of and control over information. I-80-4

1979 [go to top]

Oettinger, Anthony G.
"Counting the New Ways Computers Will Affect Us."
[October 1979/Other] LI: Newsday's Magazine for Long Island
"'One has to watch computers with the same vigilance we exercised over powder and balls and muskets,' computer expert Anthony Oettinger warns in an LI Interview with Earl Lane." October 21, 1979

Borchardt, Kurt.
The Exchange Network Facilities for Interstate Access (ENFIA) Interim Settlement Agreement.
[23 pages; August 1979/Research Report]
Replacing the traditional adversary process with governmentally sanctioned negotiation shows great promise for the coordination of telecommunications services and facilities. This arrangement can avoid the expense, delay, and litigation that often occur when two competing companies seek to offer complementary services to the public. Borchardt examines the factors affecting the success or failure of such a process, using as a case the 1978 Exchange Network Facilities for Interstate Access (ENFIA) tariff negotiations between the Bell system and other common carriers. P-79-4

Lipscomb, Greg.
Private and Public Defenses Against Soviet Interception of U.S. Telecommunications: Problems and Policy Points.
[64 pages; July 1979/Research Report]
The Soviet Union is listening in on American domestic long distance telephone calls, apparently seeking strategic economic information. While the Carter administration has decided not to interfere directly, it has formed a White House task force charged with frustrating this Soviet practice. Lipscomb discusses the problems of securing private industry communication. Should equipment be compatible, and thus vulnerable to questions of privacy and trust? Or, should each system be individualized, a distinct inconvenience to mobile corporate executives? Who should bear the costs, the general taxpayer or the corporate consumer? P-79-3

Godbey, Robert C.
Revenue and Cost Allocations: Policy Means and Ends in the Railroad and Telecommunications Industries.
[33 pages; July 1979/Research Report]
Increasing competition within the telecommunications industry is calling into question the present system of nationwide rate averaging and subsequent revenue pooling. The railroad industry, which similarly offers interstate service involving more than one company, has developed a technique of revenue distribution that establishes the rate for each route independently and provides for the subsidization of weak lines. The author describes the railroad industry's division of revenues and points out how differently these industries have handled similar problems. He suggests that if the telecommunications environment comes to resemble that of the railroad industry, an understand-ing of the railroad approach will assist the develop-ment of future telecommunications policy. P-79-2

Ganley, Oswald H.
The Role of Communications and Information Resources in Canada.
[51 pages; June 1979/Research Report]
This paper looks at the entire range of communications and information matters in terms of underlying political, economic, and social forces in Canada with special emphasis on Canada's three main concerns: unity, economic viability, and cultural identity. It is intended to serve as a base for future examination of U.S.–Canadian communications and information relationships. Canada is moving increasingly toward a comprehensive communications and information resources policy, integrated into the mainstream of their political, economic, and cultural thinking. Because of Canada's proximity to the U.S., Canadian information and communications are thoroughly intertwined with those of the U.S. Yet most Americans are unaware of the importance that Canadians attach to this fact. P-79-1

Mosco, Vincent.
Broadcasting in the United States: Innovative Challenge and Organizational Control.
[1979/Book] Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corp.

1978 [go to top]

Kalba, Konrad K., Larry S. Levine, Yale M. Braunstein, and Philip R. Hochberg.
Executive Summary of Findings of the State Cable Television Regulation Project.
[20 pages; December 1978/Research Report]
(Priced as Incidental Paper when ordered with another study in this series.) The state cable television regulation project addresses the political dynamics, legal options, regulatory issues, and economic impacts of state government involvement in cable television. This 18-month project was conducted by the Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy in conjunction with Kalba Bowen Associates, Inc., under a National Science Foundation grant. P-78-11

Program on Information Resources Policy
Information Resources: Performance, Profits & Policy
[38 pages; November 1978/Report] R-78-2

Hochberg, Philip R.
Federal Preemption of State Regulation in Cable Television.
[39 pages; November 1978/Research Report]
This report presents an overview of federal juris-diction preemption over cable television regulation. The history of federal assertion of jurisdiction is examined, emphasizing its impact on states, statutory preemption, regulatory preemption, and case law affecting authority over cable. Judicial decisions leading to the FCC Cable Television Report and Order in 1972 are reviewed, and subsequent decisions both upholding and denying federal jurisdiction are analyzed. The future of federal preemption is considered in light of current court and FCC decisions, as well as the introduction of congressional legislation dealing directly with federal preemption. P-78-8

Braunstein, Yale M., Konrad K. Kalba, and Larry S. Levine.
The Economic Impact of State Cable TV Regulation.
[75 pages; October 1978/Research Report]
This study describes the results of several econometric analyses of the effects of state cable television regulation on subscriber rates charged, penetration rates, and ownership patterns. Data including age of the cable system, channel capacity, per capita income of the system community, number of off-the-air signals received in the community, and system ownership were collected for a sample of 653 cable systems in 1971, 1974, and 1976. Results show that subscriber rates charged by systems in regulating states tended to be higher than rates charged by systems in states without state-level regulation (although this difference changed in 1976). Several explanations for this finding are discussed. P-78-7

Levine, Larry S.
The Regulation of Cable Television Subscriber Rates by State Commissions.
[96 pages; August 1978/Research Report]
This report examines the traditionally conceived concerns of stakeholders in the rate regulation game, i.e., prevention of consumer "gouging" by a monopolistic business vs. overregulation by bureaucrats who understand little about the cable industry. Levine analyzes specific issues confronting these players, including whether there should be rate regulation, and, if so, what form regulation should take and which systems and rates should be regulated, for example. The rate base rate-of-return method of regulation, as well as possible alternatives such as the common tariff procedure and "cost of living" adjustments, are assessed and some new insights concerning how cable-related stakeholders view state rate regulation are offered. P-78-6

Levine, Larry S., Konrad K. Kalba, and Philip R. Hochberg.
Taxation, Regionalization, and Pole Attachments: A Comparison of State Cable Television Policies.
[126 pages; August 1978/Research Report]
Policy outputs evolving from the day-to-day administration of state cable television statutes and laws are examined in three issue areas: 1) the tax environment in both regulating and nonregulating states; 2) regionalization through line extension, interconnection, districting, and case-by-case adjudication; and 3) the pole attachments issue, including a history of state and federal involvement, the 1978 California pole statute, and implications of the 1978 federal legislation. The three studies are assessed in relation to several crosscutting questions: the extent of administrative flexibility in implementing state statutes; the degree of convergence or divergence in policy approaches among states; and the changing nature of state involvement in cable. P-78-5

Kalba, Konrad K., Larry S. Levine, and Anne E. Birinyi.
Regulatory Politics: State Legislatures and the Cable Television Industry.
[121 pages; August 1978/Research Report]
Decisions by state governments on whether to regulate cable television, and, if so, in what form, have emerged as political and legislative issues in several states. Five representative case studies illustrate the various factors that have influenced legislative decision-making processes, including the impact of strong personalities and bureaucratic politics, the role of media exposure of industry "misbehavior," the involvement of governors and study groups in cable politics, intervention of competing industry groups, and the ability of the cable industry and municipalities to withstand or shape state regulation. P-78-2

Benda, Charles G.
State Organization and Policy Formation: The Reorganization of the Post Office Department.
[247 pages; August 1978/Incidental Paper]
This paper presents an overview of the stakes of postal management, labor, and clients in the U.S. Post Office Department and of their relative influences on the process that led to its transformation into the U.S. Postal Service. An appendix on government corporations illustrates the wide range of ends and of control over means between the abstract polar concepts and public and private ownership. I-78-11

Hochberg, Philip R.
The States Regulate Cable: A Legislative Analysis of Substantive Provisions.
[135 pages; July 1978/Research Report]
As of this writing, 11 states regulate cable television under comprehensive statutory programs, which fall into three distinct patterns: 1) regulation by the existing Public Utility Commission; 2) a "hybrid" arrangement that consists of a Cable Television Office within a PUC; and 3) separate Cable Television Commissions. Substantive portions of cable statutes under all of these schemes are analyzed, including the definition of CATV systems, general and specific powers of the agency, franchising standards, technical provisions, rate oversight, ownership, channel usage, and other provisions of cable regulatory statutes. States without comprehensive jurisdiction also are examined. P-78-4

Seipp, David John.
The Right to Privacy in American History.
[212 pages; July 1978/Research Report]
The author conducts an inquiry into the formulation of a legal right to privacy. The paper takes an institutional and policy-oriented approach to the history of privacy while maintaining an emphasis on the late 19th century as the crucial formative period for U.S. information policy on privacy. P-78-3

Borchardt, Kurt.
Actors and Stakes: A Map of the Compunications Arena (Computers and Communications).
[18 pages; June 1978/Incidental Paper]
Capsule descriptions of the actors in the compunica-tions (computers and communications) arena are presented. This synoptic presentation is meant to help individual actors become more aware of their impacts on each other and to provide observers, including legislators, regulators, and other concerned members of the public, with an overview of the complexity of policy issues in this arena. I-78-8

Read, William H.
Rethinking International Communications.
[19 pages; April 1978/Research Report]
This publication argues that, while information issues are crossing a foreign policy threshold from low to high international politics, the U.S. is ill-prepared to formulate sensible policies. The author offers two suggestions for improvement—one conceptual, the other practical. P-78-1

Program on Information Resources Policy
The Program: Who We Are & What We Do
[49 pages; 1978/Report]
Annual Report 1977-1978. R-78-1

Oettinger, Anthony G., and John C. LeGates.
Domestic and International Information Resources Policy—Congressional Testimony of Anthony G. Oettinger and John C. LeGates 1976–77.
[96 pages; 1978/Incidental Paper]
This publication contains congressional testimony of the authors on: Competition in the Telecommunica-tions Industry, Domestic Telecommunications Common Carrier Policies, International Communications and Information, and Public Diplomacy and the Future. I-78-1

1977 [go to top]

Loeb, Guy Hamilton.
The Communications Act Policy Toward Competition: A Failure to Communicate.
[95 pages; October 1977/Research Report]
This paper examines the legislative history and test of the Communications Act of 1934 seeking congressional intent regarding competition in telecommunications. It traces the development of federal regulation from its birth in a cryptic floor amendment to some transportation legislation in 1910 through the passage of the current law in 1934. The paper analyzes power over market structure granted to the FCC and the contention that Congress intended a monopolistic market structure. P-77-3

Reprinted in Federal Communications Law Journal 30, 1 (Winter 1977), 1-34; and Duke Law Journal 1 (1978), 22-26.

Sichter, James W.
Separations Procedures in the Telephone Industry: The Historical Origins of a Public Policy.
[146 pages; January 1977/Research Report]
Long-distance service is one of the most potent sources of telephone revenues. Because a long-distance call may involve more than one telephone company and more than one regulatory agency, complicated procedures for intercompany settlements have been devised to assure each provider of service with a fair share of the revenues and each user with a fair price for the service. This paper explains how these procedures evolved and how they operate today. P-77-2

Oettinger, Anthony G., Paul J. Berman, and William H. Read.
High and Low Politics: Information Resources for the 80s.
[1977/Book] Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co.

Read, William H.
America's Mass Media Merchants.
[1977/Book] Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Program on Information Resources Policy
Program Projects
[57 pages; 1977/Report]
Annual Report 1976-1977, Volume Two. R-77-2

Program on Information Resources Policy
Arenas, Players, and Stakes
[49 pages; 1977/Report]
Annual Report 1976-1977, Volume One. R-77-1

1976 [go to top]

Benjamin, Milton R., and William H. Read
"Ma Bell Fights for Her Monopoly."
[November 1976/Other] The New York Times Magazine
"The promise of high profits through high technology has set off a spectacular battle among communications giants, in the marketplace and in Congress." November 28, 1976

Borchardt, Kurt.
Towards a Theory of Legislative Compromise.
[50 pages; May 1976/Research Report]
Borchardt presents a number of actual cases involving legislative compromises and suggests a systematic process for developing alternatives designed to accommodate conflicting positions. The process involves analyzing legislative proposals in terms of who, what, when, where, how, and why the parties-at-interest will benefit from or be burdened by the proposal. Generating alternatives systematically is viewed as a first step toward developing a theory of legislative compromise. P-76-4

Oettinger, Anthony G.
Elements of Information Resources Policy: Library and Other Information Services.
[217 pages; January 1976/Research Report]
This is a report to the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Oettinger examines the relationships among information providers and their clients. The economic, institutional, and technological factors that determine how people get the information they need are addressed. Seventy-eight charts and tables display background information.

Berner, Richard.
Constraints on the Regulatory Process: A Case Study of Regulation of Cable Television.
[1976/Book] Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co.

Program on Information Resources Policy
Program Projects
[50 pages; 1976/Report]
Annual Report 1975-1976, Volume Two. R-76-2

Program on Information Resources Policy
Arenas, Players, and Stakes.
[39 pages; 1976/Report]
Annual Report 1975-1976, Volume One. R-76-1

1975 [go to top]

Program on Information Resources Policy
The Program Year in Review; A Perspective on Information Resources
[33 pages; 1975/PIRP Perspectives]
Annual Report 1974-1975, Volume Two. R-75-2

Program on Information Resources Policy
Program Scope, Aims, and Practices; A Perspective on Information Resources
[21 pages; 1975/PIRP Perspectives]
Annual Report 1974-1975, Volume One. R-75-1

1974 [go to top]

Program on Information Resources Policy
The Program Year in Review 1973-1974; A Perspective on the National Information Resources
[35 pages; 1974/PIRP Perspectives]
Annual Report 1973-1974, Volume Two. R-74-2

Program on Information Resources Policy
The Scope of the Program 1973-1974; A Perspective on Information Resources
[13 pages; 1974/PIRP Perspectives]
Annual Report 1973-1974, Volume One. R-74-1

1973 [go to top]

Program on Information Resources Policy
The Program Year in Review 1972-1973; A Perspective on the National Information Resources
[20 pages; 1973/PIRP Perspectives]
Annual Report 1972-1973, Volume Two. R-73-2

Program on Information Resources Policy
The Scope of the Program 1972-1973; A Perspective on Information Resources
[12 pages; 1973/PIRP Perspectives]
Annual Report 1972-1973, Volume One. R-73-1